Danby's administration 1673-9

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Danby's aims

1. Restore relations with Parl'. 

2. Try and eliminate French influence. 

3. Try to improve finances. 

4. Repress dissenters

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What ironic rumor circulated due to Dan's strict e

That J, Dof Y, who represented Caths and Shafts, who represented NCs + dissenters had convo about an alliance because of the harsh persecution. 

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Hutton's view of Charles' attitude to his minister

In the 70s and 80s Charles became less guiding with his ministers - weak director.

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Danby's attempts to improve Crown and Parliamentar

Positives:

1. Initially strengthened - religion + FP = cav' 

2. Bribes -  24-30, £10,000 pa 1675 

3. Lobbying 

4.1677 - Shafts and other leaders sent to tower - COWARD: THEY + CLOSEST AT THIS TIME. 

5. Closing down of coffee houses - double-edged sword  

Negatives: 

1. Intol' = too extreme 

2. Still mistrust of C 

3. Bribes - certain amount in budget + commonplace

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Danby's attempts to improve the structure of royal

Positives: 

1. Eradication of tax farmers 

2. Increased collection of taxes 

3. Increased royal income - just over £1.3 mill by 1678 

4. Retrenchment 

Negatives: 

1. L-T efforts undermined by S-T extravagence

2. C agreed to, then ignore retrenchment - floating debt of £750,000 greater than inherited in 1674.

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Danby's religious policy

Dan's aim = to realign crown religious policy with Anglican high Church, no tol'. 

Positives: 

1. Memorandum 1674 

2. 1674 - series of conferences with the bishops 

3. Test Bill 1675 - offices to be vacated if possessed by a person of Roman religion. 

Negatives: 

1. Prep for war 1678 - C refuse fight french 

2. Too extreme - sudden change + distasteful - substantiated claims made by Shafts

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Danby's FP - Pro-Dutch, Anti-French

Positives: 

1. MPs = ignorant on FP + finance, BUT by 1677 clear they wanted a Dutch allaince, fear + distrust the French. 

2. Marriage of W+M - betrothed Oct 1677 

Negatives: 

1. C's continual involvement with the French 

2. Refused to fight the French in 1678

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How far short did Parl' supplies for the DW fall?

£443,000 

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Coward's view of Danby's failure

Danby's failure however was largely due to his failure to overcome the suspicions of most MPs of Charles' pro-french and cath leanings ... What caused most distrust of the crown at this stage was C's continued attachment to the French alliance. 

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Evidence that Charles continues to form a close al

1. He = reluctant to recall soldiers still fighting in the French army.    

2. 2 further 'secret' agreements in Aug 1675 and Feb 1676 - L agreed to pay C £112,000. 

3. Following the occupation of Flanders by the French in Spring 1677, C refused requests from MPs to interevene, + adjourned Parl' between May 1677 - Jan 1678 to quel opposition. 

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Marvell's assessment of the Parl' session Jun-July

There wa a widespread fear that the army raised to fight the French would be used against Parl'.

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Danby's demise

At the same time as he engineered the marriage of W+M in 1667, C made Dan secretly obtain a yearly subsidy from L XIV. 

When this was made public in 1678, against the background of the PP, Dan = immediately impeached by Parl' + committed 1679 to the tower of London. 

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Danby's strength as a minister

1. Pro-Dutch, please Prots. 

2. Good financial policy - came up with successful policies. 

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Danby's weaknesses as a minister

1. Faced lots of opposition - led to his impeachment and imprisonment. 

2. Allowed C to do things that = politically insensible + then left himself open to be scapegoated. 

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What was contained in the Dec 1677 Anglo-Dutch tre

1. Eng agreed to force L XIV to make peace with Holland, by force if necessary. 

2, Parl' voted to raise an army of 30,000 men + £1 mill for this purpose.

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What did Montagu do in Aug 1677?

He signed a secret agreement with L XIV - if Eng remained @ peace with France and C kept Parl' prorogued, L would grant C 2 mill livres. 

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1678 further secret treaty negotiated

C agreed to disband the new army of 30,000 men + keep parl' prorgued in return for more money. 

C then antagonised L by taking the £ + not disbanding the Army. 

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What dominated the Parl' sessions of 1673-4?

Demands for new Test Acts to exclude Caths from Parl' 

Attacks on King's ministers 

Demands that the King's children should be educated as Protestants

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Why were the Declarations of Indulgence so controv

Charles claimed that he had dispensing powers over the penal laws against Caths + NCs.

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