Whig historians' view of Charles
He was the 'mmerry monarch' who helped parliament to climb out of the mess of the Interregnum and regroup so that by 1688 they were able to meet head on the challenges faced by James II.
Revisionists' (Kenyon + Lockyer) view of Charles
A more complex and difficult to read character who was very self-motivated, manipulative and cynical to his own ends.
Post-revisionists' view of Charles
Very much influenced by outside factors such as luck, and maintain that in some cases, such as the Exclusion crisis, he had no choice but to act as he did.
Seaward quote about Clarendon's fall
The dismissal of Clarendon in 1667 marked 'the end of administration and of a policy'.
Why did the cabal have no coordinated policy?
1. Diffs between them
2. Approach of C II
3. Nature of having a gov' @ the hands of many men
4. Removal of the dominance of Clarendon
What were the two general aims of this period?
1. Extend religious tol' to Caths + dissenters
2. An alliance with the French
It was the end of the 3rd DW + the fall of Buck + Arl in 1674 that marked the end of the attempt to broaden tol'.
Spotlight on Clarendon 1660-7
Things went wrong, took the tarnish off the Restoration. Religion + FP = @ the heart of disputes.
Religion: Promised tol', Parl' wanted a strict Anglican church, DoI questioned parl's right to rule, not quite believe.
Foreign Policy: 2nd Dutch War, Medway Disaster June 1667, failure
Also dissapoints Rs: Restoration not look after them.
1670 Secret Treaty of Dover
Signed by all the cabal, but only Cliff + Arl know about the Cath clause.
L gives C £375,000
@ Some point C would declare his Catholicism
Why does Prof Harley think Charles II signed the C
To create a personal connection between CII + LXIV
Uglow quote about C
Uglow quote about C after Clarendon
C 'wanted to steer his ship of state alone'.
What are the three possible motives for the the Tr
1. Step on the road to a French allaince, forcing L to need to detach Eng from the UPs.
2. To please Parl' and anti-Cath pub opinion.
3. To counter his attempts to gain greater religious tol'.
Coward's view on the Cath clause
'There is really no satisfactory explanation' especially since L had reservations.
Then why was there a Cath clause?
1. A sincere convert?
2. To get Arl's support for a French alliance?
3. To get an extra £150,000 from L?
4. To please his family?
5. Personal link between the two kings - prof Harley 'a special relationship'
Why did Buck + Shafts persuade C to make the Dec o
They wanted to help dissenters and NCs.
J, Cliff and Arl might also have had an influence on C as they wanted to extend Tol' to Caths.
The Dutch War 1672-74
Battle of Southwold Bay June 1672 - indecisve + if there was a winner it was the French.
FRENCH OCCUPATION OF UTRECT June 1672 - Led to the blooody downfall of Johan de Witt, this turned Eng pub opinion against French allaince for fear of French expansionalism.
LIKE THE 2ND DW IT WAS A CATALYST FOR TROUBLE
What happened in 1673 regarding the press?
In 1673 the Liscencing Act expired.
Therefore the market became flooded with prop, especially after the TA 1673 - J = a Cath.
Dutch prop = surprisingly effective due to anti-Cath mania, fear = particularly strong in London.
Fact about the increased persecution of recusants.
In Whiltshire more papists were convicted in 1673 than in the previous 12 years.
Parl's sessions from Oct 1673 - Feb 1674
The worst period in Parl' - more tension/confrontation than with Clarendon.
French allaince directly critised.
J's marraige to Mary of Moderna = criticised.
New TA proposed, list of meausres to limit power of future Cath monarch - Children's education.
King's principle ministers -= attacked as dangerous.
Outcomes by 1674
1. Resolved that Laud + Buck should be removed from the council.
2. Articles of impeachment against Arl.
3 Nov 1673 - Shafts led op to Cath successor, campiaign for Monmouth to be legitimised, divorce CofB, Exclusion of J II, Pro-Dutch, Anti- tol'.
4. Treaty of Westminster 1674 - fears of raising an army against the Dutch + in the face of op, C made peace with the Dutch.
5. Rule of Thomas Osborne, Earl of Danby.
Legacy of the Cabal
1. 'Court' and 'country' emerge. - 1673 Sir Thomas Meres 'this side and that side'.
2. Horror of popery and arb gov' became ever more entrenched - Smith.
How did Charles attempt to resolve financial issue
Sept 1671: The crown resumed direct administration of customs duties.
1672: Charles was forced to introduce a Stop on The Exchequer.
1670-2: The crown's ordinary revenue totalled at about £840,000
1678-9: The Crown's revenue totalled at just over £1 mill
Why did France replace Spain as Europe's superpowe
1. Consequence of Spainish decline.
2. L-T French reconstruction after the disastrous CWs of the 16th century.
What did Parliament do about Charles' decision to
They used their financial power and refused to grant £300,000
And they forced C to issue a much more rigid conventicle Act in 1670.
Why was there little trust between the 'court' and
1. Anglo-French attack on the Dutch.
3. J, DofY being Cath
What was the Test Act 1673?
Imposed oaths designed to exclude Caths from Pub office:
- Required all office holders to swear the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy + to take a dec against the Cath doctrine of transubstantiation.
- Office holders also need docs that they had recently recieved communion in the CofE.
Impact of the Test Act:
- J + Cliff have to resign
- Parl's grant C £1.1 mill over 18 months
What was the pamhplet that WofO's Eng agent produc
'England's appeal from the private cabal at Whitehall to the Great Council of the nation'.
Key theme = link between France, Popery + absolutism, in accordance with trad. Eng belief about the link between Cath + absolutism. - Even greater threat when J married Mary of Moderna in Sept 1673.