Appeal to Authority
Claiming your conclusion must be right because an expert or someone in authority supports it.
Appeal to Popularity
A form of argument which justifies a conclusion by its popularity
E.g. Most people are in favour of capital punishment, so the government should bring it back.
Appeal to Tradition
A form of argument which supports a conclusion by saying it's tradition.
E.g. 'We've always left weak infants on the mountainside to die, so we should carry on doing it - it's our tradition.'
Appeal to History
A form of argument which supports a conclusion by reference to history.
E.g. 'I've always passed exams without putting much effort in, so I'll breeze through my A-levels too.'
Two wrongs don't make a right
An attempt to justify one harmful thing on the basis of another, different, harmful thing.
An attempt to justify an action on the basis that someone else is doing it
E.g. My friends are going, why can't I?
Drawing a general conclusion from specific evidence.
Restricting the options
Pretending a false and limited version of the choices available to encourage a particular course of action.
Flaw of Causation
A flaw in reasoning which assumes that if two things occur together or in quick succession, one of them must cause the other.
However, there may not be enough to infer a casual link.
Reasoning from one minor event through a series of unlinked events to an extreme consequence.
an argument that starts and ends with the same point.
Confusing necessary and sufficient conditions
Reasoning which confuses necessary and sufficient conditions does not support a conclusion. Something which is necessary is not always enough. Something which is enough is not always necessary.
Attacking the arguer
Attacking the person putting forward an argument rather than their argument.
Dismissing a distorted version of an opposing argument.