Why did he want to introduce it?
-FOOD SHORTAGES: Grain Production needed to increase
-TO RAISE MORE FOOD AND MONEY FOR INDUSTRILISATION: Grain Surplus would be able to sell abroad
-NEEDED TO DESTORY POLITICAL RIVALS: Only managed to rid of Trosky thanks to Bukarin Tomsky and Rykov
-USSR was 22 million km long
-Farming methods were poor and primitive
-Peasants usually self reliant and reluctant of outside help
-Kulaks had owned 90% of Russian fertile land
-Bolsheviks were urbanised and had no real knowledge of farming
Kolkhoz: These were collective farms, merges of farms between 50-100 and peasants were given a share of production
Sovkhoz: State Farms, new farms in the wilderness and the peasants were paid by the state
-Stalin had believed in "economic of sale"
- Meant cheaper production
- Increase in output
- Would be provided with schools, hospitals and nurseries
Why did the Peasants resist?
- Loss of their independence
When did it come in?
- By 1927 the party agreed that by 1932 20% of farms would be collectivised
- By December 1929 the party had changed their mind and had agreed that by 1930 ALL MAIN AREAS ON LAND WILL BE COLLECTIVISED AND ALL FARMS IN RUSSIA WOULD BE COLLECTIVISED BY 1932
How was it carried out?
- 25,000 members of the Red Army/Police confiscated grain and livestock of villages
- MTS (Motor Tractor Service) Peasants were able to hire more mechanic farming vehicles which could collect grain
- Village given quotas, Kulaks ordered to surrender
- MARCH 1930 ALL FARMS COLLECTIVISED
- The Kulaks reacted by selling all their Grain at cheap prices
- killing/slaughtering their animals
- Burning their houses
- LIVESTOCK HAD NOT RECOVERED 1928 LEVELS TILL 1953
"LIQUIDATE THE KULAK CLASS"
- Group 1: Killed or Imprisoned
- Group 2: Sent to GULAGS in Siberia to work
- Group 3: Located to baron areas in the wilderness
Evidence that Collectivisation was out of Control
- One family was deported for owning a cow and a half
- Many people died on route to Siberia
- Slogan "MOSCOW DOESN'T BELIEVE IN TEARS"
How did he moderate the policy throughout the whol
- Provide Peasants with small areas of private land as well as a limited amount of animals
- Mini NEP'S: Collectivisation renewed in a new vigour
- 1931 half of the peasants collectivised again
- Next Year Resulted Famine
- Grain Exports had increased between 1928 to 1931
- State Procument had increased: Fed Urban Workers
- Disposed Peasants came into the city to work in factories
- Grain Harvest had dropped dramatically in the early 1930s
- Only reached 1928 levels by 1935
- Huge Animal Population Loss: 1928: 70.5 million, 1935: 49.3
- By 1953 it had recovered
- Government succeeded in clearing private markets
- Peasants weren't allowed to hold grain for ransom
- MTS helped Government control the society
- 10 Million peasants were disposed of between 1929-32
- 2/3 million died
- 7 million died in famine
- Ukraine 5 million died