Aimed at people studying the AQA board like me. These are the reasons for and cause of collectivisation from the Stalin's Russia unit of AS level history. This may help with GCSE too, but is probably in too much detail :) Please feel free to correct/ask questions :)

  • Created by: Nora
  • Created on: 24-01-13 20:28



  • To increase military strength (not industrialised so weak, needed huge quantities of weapons and munitions, war scare in late 1920s, threat of attack)
  • To achieve self-sufficiency (less dependent on West, socialism in one country, make communism successful!)
  • To increase grain supplies (end dependence upon backward agricultural system, bad harvest, low production or hoarding grain caused major problems, did not want to be at the mercy of the peasantry)
  • To move towards a socialist society (Marxism required more workers, in 1928 only 20% of USSR were workers)
  • To establish his credentials (Stalin as the equal to Lenin, transform the USSR)
  • To improve standards of living (catch up with the West, make communism look good!)


  • The communist party had more control over the country
  • Stalin's power reinforced (after power struggle)
  • Russia moved further towards socialism (Kulaks eliminated, capitalism abolished with the exception of private plots of land)
  • 7 million deaths (famine in 1932)
  • Population imbalance in rural areas (too many people left for the cities leaving the old/too young in the country, thus making it more inefficient)
  • Some felt betrayed by the communist party
  • Agriculture was sacrificed for the needs of industry
  • Some gains (education, health care)
  • Production plummeted (number of livestock did not recover until 1950s)
  • Famine (in Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Caucasus especially)
  • Grain exports increased (money for industrialisation)
  • Agriculture still inefficient (bad planning such as lack of tractors when needed)
  • Lack of incentives
  • Some elements of capitalism (supposed profit, 1/3 of produce sold from private plots)

Overall summary

The overall impact of collectivisation can only be viewed as a success in the eyes of the communist party: it granted them the control they desired and pushed socialism forwards. However, the immense loss of life can never be justified by the little that Stalin managed to achieve. Was collectivisation even necessary, or would another method have been just as successful and caused less harm?


Kate warwick


Really good, thanks for this resource; my exam is in three weeks and i'm freaking out!