Citizenship- Theme 3- The Global Community

A summary of the 3rd section of the Edexcel Citizenship Studies textbook

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  • Created on: 05-05-12 12:47

Global warming and sustainibility

  • Global warming is the rise in the temperature of the Earth's atmosphere, though to be due to an increase in greenhouse gases
  • Scientists do not agree about whether global warming is happening
  • Some people fear that non-renewable energy sources (nuclear and fossil fuels) will be used before renewable sources (wind, solar, wave) are making a big impact
  • Increasing global temperature may lead to higher sea levels, extreme weather, larger deserts, animal extinctions, melting of ice-caps and flooding
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Theme 3- The Global Community

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What can be done?

  • Individuals can make a difference with simple but effective actions; like recycling, using less energy and walking or cycling more
  • Modifying travel and transport can reduce harmful pollution. By driving a hybrid car, sharing journeys with others and only using cars for longer journeys, contribution to global warming is reduced
  • Local councils can recycle waste, encourage public transport, encourage energy efficiency and make car sharing easier
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Solutions to global problems

  • Earth Summits are meeting arranged by the UN in order to discuss issue relating to the environment and sustainable development
  • The Kyoto Summit (1997) reached an agreement to reduce industrial gases, but the USA and developing countries didn't sign (it may interfere with development)
  • International action often depends on the commitment of individual countries
  • Ordinary people have an important role in implementing Local Agenda 21, which aims to raise public awareness
  • Environmental groups (eg. Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth) work to protect the environment
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A question of tax

  • Direct taxes (income tax, council tax) are paid directly to the government. Indirect taxes (VAT and green taxes) are not
  • Poorer people payer a greater proportion of income in tax than richer people
  • Income tax is meant to be fair, people on low pay are charged a lower % of income than the people on high pay
  • Our taxes go to government and become public money, and the government decide where to spend it (eg. on education, health care, roads or defence)
  • In the Budget, the government announces tax and spending plans
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Benefits and spending

  • UK government use taxation to pay for welfare
  • As government income is limited, means testing is used to decide what benefits a person needs, but this may mean that some people don't apply because it is unfair, an invasion of privacy or is too complicated
  • UK government provide basic welfare for all, but private services (health-care, pension schemes and education) are all available for those who can afford it- the UK has a two-tier welfare system
  • The government have to prioritise when making choices about spending
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Managing the economy

  • High employment levels increase national wealth and improve living standards, so the government help people to find and keep work
  • The UK has an aging population. This is an economic problem as care and health-care cost will increase and the pension provision will be inadequate as people are living longer
  • The government plans to higher the retirement age and encourage private pensions in order to tackle this problem
  • EU workers have the right to work in any EU country. Britain's economy needs economic migrants with special skills
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Individuals making a difference

  • Millions of people volunteer to support their community by raising money, organising petitions, helping the elderly and disabled and teaching children
  • Much voluntary work is poured in charities (eg. National Trust, RSPCA, Cancer Research and the RLNI), which support communities
  • Important services (such as the Air Ambulance) rely on charity support in order to run
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Working together

  • Communities are constantly changing- as employment declines, demand for services falls
  • Rural areas are declining because there is a shortage of social housing and the wealthy often but second homes in the country, so there is a decreased demand for local services
  • Individuals can make a difference, but government support is also needed
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An ethical foreign policy

  • Foreign policy involves international relations, and includes trade, economics and international co-operation. The UK's foreign policy goals are decided by government
  • Examples of an ethical approach are helping famine victims in Africa and combating climate change
  • Many international problems are solved by negotiation and persuasion
  • The wealth of a country depends on largely on international trade. When we earn more than we spend, we have a positive balance of trade
  • The UK government believes in fair trade and free trade (where the price of overseas goods is not increased to protect home producers)
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Britain and the European Union

  • The EU (European Union) is a political and economic union of European countries. The EU aims to promote economics/social progress and develop Europe as an area of freedom, security and justice
  • The main organisation that the run the EU are-
  • Parliament- Members are elected, and approve law proposed by the Commission
  • The Commission- Responsible for running of EU and proposes new laws
  • The Council of Ministers- The main decision making body, made up of ministers from the governments of member countries
  • The Presidency- Each country takes a turn to run the EU for 6 months, deciding which issues take priority
  • There is debate whether Britain should be in the EU, some think that we have given up independence (Eurosceptics) but some see economic benefits
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Britain and the United Nations

  • The United Nation is open to all countries and works to resolve conflict before it escalates into war
  • The Security Council exist to maintain international peace. It has 5 permanent members (Britain, France, China, USA and Russia) who change every 2 year, and have the power to veto (block) proposal
  • The General Assembly meets in regular sessions, all countries are represented
  • The International Court of Justice examines disputes
  • UN agencies (UNICEF) exist to carry out the aims of the UN
  • The UN is successful in keeping 2/3 of peacekeeping efforts and it providing humanitarian aid
  • Some UN members believe that it should be reformed to make it more democratic and fair
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Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations

  • The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary organisation of 53 countries, who were formally members of the British Empire
  • The Commonwealth exists for informal discussion and co-operation between nations. It supports world peace, democracy, human rights, free trade and sustainability
  • Members do not uphold democratic government have been suspended (Zimbabwe was suspended for 12 months for not having democratic elections)
  • Commonwealth agencies make significant cultural, social and educational contributions to the development of member countries
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The strength of disagreements

  • International Humanitarian Law (IHL) applies to both sides in an armed conflict, and states that all involved must not use certain weapons, avoid killing civilians and not harming a surrendered opponent
  • Those who break the IHL can be made to answer for war crimes, genocide and other crimes in the International Criminal Court
  • Making international law work depends on countries agreeing on the law
  • The International Committee of the Red Cross persuades countries to abide by IHL
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A force for good

  • Some of the world's poorest countries have borrowed huge sums of money from wealthy countries. Debt cancellation helps countries develop and reduces poverty
  • The UK plays a big part in UN peacekeeping activities
  • Humanitarian aid can suddenly be urgently needed because of natural, human and social disasters
  • The UK government is the largest donor to the Central Emergency Response Fund, who provide agencies with funds to respond to disasters
  • Over 21 million people are refugees, who require humanitarian aid
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A call to conscience

  • The UK has a life expectancy of 78.85, which is higher than the EU average (77.32) and the world average (66.26)
  • In MEDC's, workers tend to be specialised and more productive. Employers can give higher wages and therefore MEDC's are wealthier
  • Trade is the best way for economies to grow, but aim is often needed on a short-term basis
  • The World Trade Organisation (WTO) is trying to increase trade by reducing tariffs
  • Multinational companies invest in developing countries as a way of making more profits and increasing global reach
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Looks like geo to me

Mohammed abdi

innit husna

i agree but easy topic 

Mohammed abdi

innit husna

i agree but easy topic 

Mohammed abdi

innit husna

i agree but easy topic 

Mohammed abdi

innit husna

i agree but easy topic 

Mohammed abdi

innit husna

i agree but easy topic 

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