Citizenship- Theme 3- The Global Community

A summary of the 3rd section of the Edexcel Citizenship Studies textbook

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: R_Hall
  • Created on: 05-05-12 12:47

Global warming and sustainibility

  • Global warming is the rise in the temperature of the Earth's atmosphere, though to be due to an increase in greenhouse gases
  • Scientists do not agree about whether global warming is happening
  • Some people fear that non-renewable energy sources (nuclear and fossil fuels) will be used before renewable sources (wind, solar, wave) are making a big impact
  • Increasing global temperature may lead to higher sea levels, extreme weather, larger deserts, animal extinctions, melting of ice-caps and flooding
1 of 16

Theme 3- The Global Community

2 of 16

What can be done?

  • Individuals can make a difference with simple but effective actions; like recycling, using less energy and walking or cycling more
  • Modifying travel and transport can reduce harmful pollution. By driving a hybrid car, sharing journeys with others and only using cars for longer journeys, contribution to global warming is reduced
  • Local councils can recycle waste, encourage public transport, encourage energy efficiency and make car sharing easier
3 of 16

Solutions to global problems

  • Earth Summits are meeting arranged by the UN in order to discuss issue relating to the environment and sustainable development
  • The Kyoto Summit (1997) reached an agreement to reduce industrial gases, but the USA and developing countries didn't sign (it may interfere with development)
  • International action often depends on the commitment of individual countries
  • Ordinary people have an important role in implementing Local Agenda 21, which aims to raise public awareness
  • Environmental groups (eg. Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth) work to protect the environment
4 of 16

A question of tax

  • Direct taxes (income tax, council tax) are paid directly to the government. Indirect taxes (VAT and green taxes) are not
  • Poorer people payer a greater proportion of income in tax than richer people
  • Income tax is meant to be fair, people on low pay are charged a lower % of income than the people on high pay
  • Our taxes go to government and become public money, and the government decide where to spend it (eg. on education, health care, roads or defence)
  • In the Budget, the government announces tax and spending plans
5 of 16

Benefits and spending

  • UK government use taxation to pay for welfare
  • As government income is limited, means testing is used to decide what benefits a person needs, but this may mean that some people don't apply because it is unfair, an invasion of privacy or is too complicated
  • UK government provide basic welfare for all, but private services (health-care, pension schemes and education) are all available for those who can afford it- the UK has a two-tier welfare system
  • The government have to prioritise when making choices about spending
6 of 16

Managing the economy

  • High employment levels increase national wealth and improve living standards, so the government help people to find and keep work
  • The UK has an aging population. This is an economic problem as care and health-care cost will increase and the pension provision will be inadequate as people are living longer
  • The government plans to higher the retirement age and encourage private pensions in order to tackle this problem
  • EU workers have the right to work in any EU country. Britain's economy needs economic migrants with special skills
7 of 16

Individuals making a difference

  • Millions of people volunteer to support their community by raising money, organising petitions, helping the elderly and disabled and teaching children
  • Much voluntary work is poured in charities (eg. National Trust, RSPCA, Cancer Research and the RLNI), which support communities
  • Important services (such as the Air Ambulance) rely on charity support in order to run
8 of 16

Working together

  • Communities are constantly changing- as employment declines, demand for services falls
  • Rural areas are declining because there is a shortage of social housing and the wealthy often but second homes in the country, so there is a decreased demand for local services
  • Individuals can make a difference, but government support is also needed
9 of 16

An ethical foreign policy

  • Foreign policy involves international relations, and includes trade, economics and international co-operation. The UK's foreign policy goals are decided by government
  • Examples of an ethical approach are helping famine victims in Africa and combating climate change
  • Many international problems are solved by negotiation and persuasion
  • The wealth of a country depends on largely on international trade. When we earn more than we spend, we have a positive balance of trade
  • The UK government believes in fair trade and free trade (where the price of overseas goods is not increased to protect home producers)
10 of 16

Britain and the European Union

  • The EU (European Union) is a political and economic union of European countries. The EU aims to promote economics/social progress and develop Europe as an area of freedom, security and justice
  • The main organisation that the run the EU are-
  • Parliament- Members are elected, and approve law proposed by the Commission
  • The Commission- Responsible for running of EU and proposes new laws
  • The Council of Ministers- The main decision making body, made up of ministers from the governments of member countries
  • The Presidency- Each country takes a turn to run the EU for 6 months, deciding which issues take priority
  • There is debate whether Britain should be in the EU, some think that we have given up independence (Eurosceptics) but some see economic benefits
11 of 16

Britain and the United Nations

  • The United Nation is open to all countries and works to resolve conflict before it escalates into war
  • The Security Council exist to maintain international peace. It has 5 permanent members (Britain, France, China, USA and Russia) who change every 2 year, and have the power to veto (block) proposal
  • The General Assembly meets in regular sessions, all countries are represented
  • The International Court of Justice examines disputes
  • UN agencies (UNICEF) exist to carry out the aims of the UN
  • The UN is successful in keeping 2/3 of peacekeeping efforts and it providing humanitarian aid
  • Some UN members believe that it should be reformed to make it more democratic and fair
12 of 16

Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations

  • The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary organisation of 53 countries, who were formally members of the British Empire
  • The Commonwealth exists for informal discussion and co-operation between nations. It supports world peace, democracy, human rights, free trade and sustainability
  • Members do not uphold democratic government have been suspended (Zimbabwe was suspended for 12 months for not having democratic elections)
  • Commonwealth agencies make significant cultural, social and educational contributions to the development of member countries
13 of 16

The strength of disagreements

  • International Humanitarian Law (IHL) applies to both sides in an armed conflict, and states that all involved must not use certain weapons, avoid killing civilians and not harming a surrendered opponent
  • Those who break the IHL can be made to answer for war crimes, genocide and other crimes in the International Criminal Court
  • Making international law work depends on countries agreeing on the law
  • The International Committee of the Red Cross persuades countries to abide by IHL
14 of 16

A force for good

  • Some of the world's poorest countries have borrowed huge sums of money from wealthy countries. Debt cancellation helps countries develop and reduces poverty
  • The UK plays a big part in UN peacekeeping activities
  • Humanitarian aid can suddenly be urgently needed because of natural, human and social disasters
  • The UK government is the largest donor to the Central Emergency Response Fund, who provide agencies with funds to respond to disasters
  • Over 21 million people are refugees, who require humanitarian aid
15 of 16

A call to conscience

  • The UK has a life expectancy of 78.85, which is higher than the EU average (77.32) and the world average (66.26)
  • In MEDC's, workers tend to be specialised and more productive. Employers can give higher wages and therefore MEDC's are wealthier
  • Trade is the best way for economies to grow, but aim is often needed on a short-term basis
  • The World Trade Organisation (WTO) is trying to increase trade by reducing tariffs
  • Multinational companies invest in developing countries as a way of making more profits and increasing global reach
16 of 16

Comments

Husna

Looks like geo to me

Mohammed abdi

innit husna

i agree but easy topic 


Mohammed abdi

innit husna

i agree but easy topic 


Mohammed abdi

innit husna

i agree but easy topic 


Mohammed abdi

innit husna

i agree but easy topic 


Mohammed abdi

innit husna

i agree but easy topic 


Similar Citizenship Studies resources:

See all Citizenship Studies resources »See all resources »