4.1: Views on Britain's world/imperial role
- Believed the Empire was vital and India was not ready for independence.
- Believed Britain should be a world leader, however it was becoming a "junior partner".
- Roosevelt got Churchill to agree to democracy for British colonies in the 1941 Atlantic Charter.
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4.2: Churchill and Roosevelt
- Met 9 times during the war and exchanged 1700 letters and telegrams.
- Churchill had an American mother and toured the US during his wilderness years.
- First met in 1918 but Churchill forgot.
- "Special relationship" with the USA - Churchill was the first PM to address Congress and stay at the White House, they were both "English speaking peoples".
- Pre-1941 Lend Lease of supplies and swapping of 50 destroyers for 99 year leases on naval bases in the Caribbean much to the advantage of the US.
- 1941 Atlantic Charter between USA and UK established free trade, democracy and no deals with the USSR regarding land in East Europe, which Churchill broke during the 4th Moscow conference.
- Hitler's declaration of war on USA and attack on Pearl Harbour in December 1941 saw USA joining the war.
- Churchill persuaded Roosevelt of the Mediterranean Strategy in 1943 which failed.
- Churchill was sidelined by Roosevelt at Tehran.
- Churchill gave Roosevelt his only WW2 painting during Casablanca 1943.
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4.2: Churchill and Stalin
- Met 5 times during the war.
- Churchill: "I like that man", "we get on like a house on fire".
- Initial dislike over communism (Churchill viewed it as a "cancer"), Churchill had criticised Stalin's use of slave labour camps (Gulags).
- Churchill described the 1940 Katyn Massacre as "very cruel".
- Conflict over Stalin's demands for a second front.
- Churchill appeased Stalin over control of East Europe because of focus on "soft underbelly", which became the Mediterranean Strategy failure.
- Decided spheres of influence at 4th Moscow (1944) with the naughty document/percentages agreement - Greece was to be British-controlled, Poland was to be Soviet-controlled.
- Got along well when they were drinking despite a history of disagreements.
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4.2: Churchill and De Gaulle
- Churchill could converse fluently in French.
- Free French was based in London.
- Churchill admired his patriotism but said "you are not France".
- Churchill destroyed the French fleet at Oran in the Mediterranean in 1940.
- Churchill found De Gaulle's insistence on being treated equally a difficulty.
- De Gaulle sided with Roosevelt over an American leading the invasion of Normandy.
- Churchill had to keep relations open with Vichy France, which De Gaulle hated.
- Walked arm in arm through a liberated Paris in 1944.
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4.3: Contributions to international conferences
- Travelled over 110,000 miles despite being in his late 60s, having a mild heart attack and pneumonia.
- 1941 Placentia Bay - Atlantic Charter agreed.
- 1942 2nd Moscow - conflict over second front, Churchill persuades Stalin after sharing drinks.
- 1943 Casablanca - Churchill gave Roosevelt his only painting of WW2.
- Late 1943 Tehran - first Big 3 conference - Churchill sidelined, Eisenhower to lead Overlord.
- 1944 4th Moscow - Stalin and Churchill agree on percentages agreement/naughty document.
- Feb 1945 Yalta - Decision to bomb Dresden (to scare/please Russia, as revenge for Blitz, to speed up end of war), zones decided.
- July 1945 Potsdam - Attlee and Truman replaced Churchill and Roosevelt, decided on unconditional surrender of Japan.
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4.4: Churchill's plans for post-war Europe
- Zones of Germany and Berlin.
- United States of Europe but not including the UK.
- Germany and France to reconcile.
- Fear of an "iron curtain" descending across Europe 1946.
- Spheres of influence in Europe as decided in 1944.
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