Churchill Key Idea 4


4.1: Views on Britain's world/imperial role

  • Believed the Empire was vital and India was not ready for independence.
  • Believed Britain should be a world leader, however it was becoming a "junior partner".
  • Roosevelt got Churchill to agree to democracy for British colonies in the 1941 Atlantic Charter.
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4.2: Churchill and Roosevelt

  • Met 9 times during the war and exchanged 1700 letters and telegrams.
  • Churchill had an American mother and toured the US during his wilderness years.
  • First met in 1918 but Churchill forgot.
  • "Special relationship" with the USA - Churchill was the first PM to address Congress and stay at the White House, they were both "English speaking peoples".
  • Pre-1941 Lend Lease of supplies and swapping of 50 destroyers for 99 year leases on naval bases in the Caribbean much to the advantage of the US.
  • 1941 Atlantic Charter between USA and UK established free trade, democracy and no deals with the USSR regarding land in East Europe, which Churchill broke during the 4th Moscow conference.
  • Hitler's declaration of war on USA and attack on Pearl Harbour in December 1941 saw USA joining the war.
  • Churchill persuaded Roosevelt of the Mediterranean Strategy in 1943 which failed.
  • Churchill was sidelined by Roosevelt at Tehran.
  • Churchill gave Roosevelt his only WW2 painting during Casablanca 1943.
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4.2: Churchill and Stalin

  • Met 5 times during the war.
  • Churchill: "I like that man", "we get on like a house on fire".
  • Initial dislike over communism (Churchill viewed it as a "cancer"), Churchill had criticised Stalin's use of slave labour camps (Gulags).
  • Churchill described the 1940 Katyn Massacre as "very cruel".
  • Conflict over Stalin's demands for a second front.
  • Churchill appeased Stalin over control of East Europe because of focus on "soft underbelly", which became the Mediterranean Strategy failure.
  • Decided spheres of influence at 4th Moscow (1944) with the naughty document/percentages agreement - Greece was to be British-controlled, Poland was to be Soviet-controlled.
  • Got along well when they were drinking despite a history of disagreements.
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4.2: Churchill and De Gaulle

  • Churchill could converse fluently in French.
  • Free French was based in London.
  • Churchill admired his patriotism but said "you are not France".
  • Churchill destroyed the French fleet at Oran in the Mediterranean in 1940.
  • Churchill found De Gaulle's insistence on being treated equally a difficulty.
  • De Gaulle sided with Roosevelt over an American leading the invasion of Normandy.
  • Churchill had to keep relations open with Vichy France, which De Gaulle hated.
  • Walked arm in arm through a liberated Paris in 1944.
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4.3: Contributions to international conferences

  • Travelled over 110,000 miles despite being in his late 60s, having a mild heart attack and pneumonia.
  • 1941 Placentia Bay - Atlantic Charter agreed.
  • 1942 2nd Moscow - conflict over second front, Churchill persuades Stalin after sharing drinks.
  • 1943 Casablanca - Churchill gave Roosevelt his only painting of WW2.
  • Late 1943 Tehran - first Big 3 conference - Churchill sidelined, Eisenhower to lead Overlord.
  • 1944 4th Moscow - Stalin and Churchill agree on percentages agreement/naughty document.
  • Feb 1945 Yalta - Decision to bomb Dresden (to scare/please Russia, as revenge for Blitz, to speed up end of war), zones decided.
  • July 1945 Potsdam - Attlee and Truman replaced Churchill and Roosevelt, decided on unconditional surrender of Japan.
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4.4: Churchill's plans for post-war Europe

  • Zones of Germany and Berlin.
  • United States of Europe but not including the UK.
  • Germany and France to reconcile.
  • Fear of an "iron curtain" descending across Europe 1946.
  • Spheres of influence in Europe as decided in 1944.
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