China One Child Policy

One way a government has tried to alter a countries population- in the case of China reduction of population due to strain on resources.

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Causes of the One Child Policy

  • Agricultural lifestyle means children needed to work the land.
  • 1964-1974 saw a population explosion with the addition of 200 million people.
  • Cultural, boys are more favourable, so parents have more children to ensure boys.
  • There was limited contraception up until the early 1960s.
  • Mao Zedong said that contraception was "bloodless genocide"
  • Fertility rate peaked in the 1970s at 5.8.
  • High Infant Mortality.
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Why the One Child Policy?

  • High population means a pressure on services such as health and education.
  • 25% of the world population in China, on 7% of world's arable land.
  • The average area of land per person is 50% less than the world average.
  • Pressures on food supplies.
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Outcomes- Positive

  • The annual population rate has slowed and is now at 0.6%.
  • The use of contraception such as condoms has increased.
  • An estimated 300-400 million births have been prevented.
  • The current fertility rate is around 1.7, below replacement level.
  • Most Chinese people feel that it has been good for their country.
  • Chinese officials say that it has boosted prosperity.
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Outcomes- Negative

  • Some consider that reproduction is a basic human right.
  • The one child policy has had most success in urban areas.
  • Due to a large population base of around 1.3 billion, the population is still growing at about 10 million per year.
  • China is developing an ageing population.
  • By 2050 there will only be 2 workers for every retiree.
  • Sex-selective abortions (97% female) reflect a cultural perception of the need for a son.
  • 'Little emperor' syndrome, parents spoil one child.
  • Millions of men will struggle to find sexual partners in adulthood.
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Future

  • Arable land is being lost to increased urbanisation.
  • Western- style reluctance to have more than one child.
  • If the policy were lifted overnight there could be a population explosion back lash.
  • Data suggests that only 5.8% of Chinese women now want more than two children.
  • Reports in south western China that officials were forcing women to have abortions and levying steep fines on families violating the law.
  • Rural areas still have a desire for boys however in modern cities this idea has all but disapeared.
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Comments

Grace Dunham

a bit bland (:

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