Chapter 3 - Tudors

  • Created by: kimid1
  • Created on: 14-12-20 12:20

England's Relations with Scotland and other Foreig

France was England's traditional enemy, Henry didn't want to restart the Hundred Years war.

Three aims, maintain positive relations to ensure:

  • National Security
  • Recognition of the Tudor dynasty
  • Defence of English trading interests.

Didn't want to assert power, just good relations and defence.

Important people:

  • James IV - King at 25 in 1488. Killed at Battle of Flodden in 1513
  • Maximilian I - HRE from 1493 to 1519, but had taken over rule of Empire in 1486
  • Charles VIII - King of France from 1483-1498, ruled in own right from 1491. Wanted Naples.
  • Ferdinand and Isabella - Married in 1469.
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Brittany and France

  • 1487 - France invades Brittany, alarms Henry
  • 1489 - Henry aks Parliament for extraordinary revenue (obligation to Bretons, French threat)
  • February 1489 - Treaty of Redon, tries to form alliance with Maximilian who is married to Anne
  • English army went to Brittany but Anne felt it was futile - surrendered and marries Charles leaving English marooned in Brittany, Maximilian had lost interest, sticky position
  • 1492- Henry launches invasion of France knowing Charles was more interested in invading Italy so he sought a quick peace settlement.
  • November 1492 - Treaty of Etaples signed, no more Warbeck support and pension
  • period of relative cordiality followed
  • dynastic and national interests defended
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Burgundy, the Netherlands and the Holy Roman Empir

  • Bulk of England's exports went through Netherlands ports like Antwerp and Bruges which were under Burgundy's jurisdiction
  • Margaret, leading upholder of Yorkist cause, widowed, enlisted Maximilian;s support and they showed hospitality to Perkin Warbeck leading Anglo-Burgundian relations to deteriorate
  • Henry issued a trade embargo in 1493 3xpecting it to help, prioritised dynastic interests
  • 1496 - Intercursus Magnus after Warbeck left
  • 1504, Isabella dies
  • 1506- Treaty of Windsor, includes Intercursus Malus
  • Would've given England a much stronger trading position in the Netherlands, never put into practice
  • Earl of Suffolk handed over, imprisoned in tower
  • Trading position and security of dynasty improved
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  • 1489 - Treaty of Medina del Campo - mutual protection, no rebels or pretenders, A+C marriage
  • Ferdinand was reluctant to do the marriage whilst Warbeck threatended dynastic stability
  • They argued over the size of Catherine's dowry
  • 1499-details agreed, 1501- they got married
  • 1501- Arthur dies, Henry suggests Henry, Ferdinand reluctant as papal dispensation had a price
  • 1504 - Isabella dies, Henry no want marriage, chooses to support Juana
  • Jan 1506 - Philip and Juana Shipwrecked, Treaty of Windsor signed
  • Intercursus Malus took place, Earl of Suffolk returned, recognition as rulers of Castile
  • Philip dies in September, Juana described as having gone mad
  • Ferdinand becomes regent of Castile
  • Henry left diplomatically isolated, outsmarted again by major European monarch
  • Ferdinand ensured H+C's marriage wouldn't take place in Henry's lifetime
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1485-1495 - Anglo-Scottish relations were tense

1486 - There was a three year truce

Scotland and France often worked together as the 'auld alliance. 

1495-96: James came of age and heled Warbeck, he stayed for two years, received a pension of £1,200 pa and got an aristocratic marriage to his cousin Lady Catherine Gordon. He encouraged Warbeck to cross the border in 1496 with a small army that spent little time in England and got no support from the people of Northumberland. Prompted Henry to send an army which sparked 1497 Corish Rebellion. In interests of both countries to sign  Truce of Ayton. From 1498 onwards relations improved, bye Felicia to Perky (d. 1499)

1501 - agreed Margaret and him should marry.

1502 - The Treaty of Perpetual Peace, formally sanctions marriage between him and Margaret which takes place in 1503, relations were good until the end of Henry's reign

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Henry's power only extended as far as the 'Pale' (an area of land surrounding Dublin), descendants of the Anglo-Norman barons had power in the rest of Ireland. Most important : Fitzgeralds/Geraldines and the Butlers.

Gerald Fitzgerald, Earl of Kildare was the dominant figure. Lord Deputy of Ireland since 1477, had Yorkist sympathies. Reinforced when he crowned Lambert Simnel King of Ireland in 1486 and supported Warbeck in 1491. Henry took action, he implemented an English man backed by armed force instead of relying on Irish aristocracy, appointed infant son Henry as Lieutenant of Ireland and appointed Sir Edward Poynings as his deputy.

Poynings established royal authority through threat of force and bribery. Reinforced by getting Irish Parliament to pass 'Poynings' Law' in 1495 : Irish Parliament couldn't pass any laws without the approval of the English crown. This failed as it was too expensive and was made worse when Warbeck went there in 1495 besieging Waterford. He also tried to implement English law.

1496 - Kildare realised no use in supporting Yorkists so loyally served Henry and secured submission of various chieftains.

By 1500 - some level of peaceful, cheap authority. Lucky Kildare was amenable.

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Securing the Succession

Earl of Suffolk seemed to be gaining influence, fears about the Duke of Buckingham, Henry's health was deteriorating and Henry was still a child, people less loyal to Henry started trying to position themselves for his death. 

Successes: Princess Margaret and James IV of Scotland, strengthened alliance and reduces threat of Warbeck

Princess Mary and King Louis XII of France, after Henry's death.

Catherine of Aragon married Arthur but he died, Henry married Catherine but divorced her after Henry died.

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