AQA Triumph of Elizabeth; Edward's reign

Notes from the AQA textbook on Edward's reign covering both Somerset and Northumberland

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Rachel Jones 1
Chapter 1
Edward: 15471553
The flawed legacy of Henry VIII
Factional Rivalry:
Earl of Hertford and his faction were determined to be in control after Henry's death
Benefited from:
o Weakening of their opponents through the Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Surrey's treason
o Control of the Dry Stamp Hertford's ally, Denny, gained it in August 1546
Allowed Denny to make documents legal without the King's permission/approval/knowledge
Denny used the stamp to `authenticate' the King's will ­ after his death
o Henry had altered his will to exclude the Howards in midDecember 1546
o On 26 December he left throne to Edward, Mary and Elizabeth and named a Regency Council
War with France and Scotland had proved expensive had to sell lands and debase coinage
o Problem reached its height in summer of 1549
Problems of Minority Government
No previous success Edward V was possibly killed by Richard III
No guarantee that Somerset's protectorship would be accepted
Fears about a possible breakdown in law and order
o Official uncertainty was reflected in the publication in 1547 of the `Homily on Obedience'.
Had to be read by parish clergy to those who attended church
Reinforced the message that disobedience towards lawful authority offended against God's
Problems facing Edwardian Government
War and occupation in Scotland
Loss of Boulogne to France
Poverty and vagrancy
Religious change Book of Common Prayer issued in 1549 and 1552
Rebellion Kett's and Western
Minority government faction conflict
Somerset's rise to the throne
Somerset rewarded his supporters (Thomas Seymour, Viscount Lisle (EoW/DoN) and Earl of Essex) with
promotions and substantial grants of Crown lands.
Somerset overthrew the Regency Council governing with members of his household

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Rachel Jones 2
Chapter 1
Took control of the Privy Council through Sir Michael Stanhope
o They felt resentment at the protectorate led to Southampton's arrest
Fear that the public would not like the protectorate Homily on Obedience
Factional Rivalry
First victim was Thomas Seymour
o Promoted to Lord Admiral after being left out of Regency Council
o Starkey: `the leading malcontent of the new reign'
o Wanted to marry Elizabeth and plot with Southampton against Somerset
o Somerset brought treason charges against him
o…read more

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Chapter 1
Somerset's own shortcomings
Personal style of leadership Privy Council bypassed
o Caused resentment among Privy Councillors (Warwick/Paget)
o Own set of advisors William Cecil
Inability to act decisively against the rebels in both East Anglia and the South West giving his enemies the
opportunity to remove him
o John Guy suggests that this was a pretext: `his autocracy ­ as much as his policies ­ provoked
Warwick's countercoup'
Religious policies under Somerset
Cautious and moderate reform under the Duke of…read more

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Rachel Jones 4
Chapter 1
into a
ban on
n, and
he had
it.…read more

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Rachel Jones 5
Chapter 1
December 1547 Dissolution of chantries Crown needed money Chantries, guilds and
to pay for expensive lay brotherhoods
foreign policy abolished and their
property seized by
Crown further
attack on popular
Belief in
purgatory had
ceased to be
official doctrine
so seemed like
a logical step
However, the
Crown also
secured money
and property
o Haigh:
d for
nd was
May 1549 Introduction of Book of…read more

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Rachel Jones 6
Chapter 1
The causes of the rebellions
Widespread resentment of the attack on popular religious practices.
o Wanted a reversal of the Reformation
Resentful of Protector Somerset's sheep tax
o Made worse through implementation by insensitive local officials
Duffy: `class antagonism'
East Anglia
Widespread discontent at possible abuses in local government
Abuses of privileges associated with John Flowerdew
Response to antienclosure proclamation of April 1549
M. L.…read more

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Rachel Jones 7
Chapter 1
Reasons for his downfall:
Arrogant and dictatorial manner created enemies
o Earl of Southampton, conservative, opposed him even after being reinstated into the Council
His style of government and policy failures weakened him
o Policies provoked rebellion (Western)/encouraged it (Kett's)
o Country was in financial disarray
o Couldn't unite Scottish and English crowns
o Threat of losing French land
In late August, Earl of Warwick, Southampton, Earl of Arundel and Lord St John decided that Somerset should
be gone
o…read more

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Rachel Jones 8
Chapter 1
Stability in finance
He brought an end to the wars against Scotland and France
o Not only ensured a reduction in Crown expenditure
o Brought in £133,333 as a French payment for the return of Boulogne
Debased the coinage once, then stopped
Crown income improved increased revenue from the Church (melting down plates)
Walter Mildmay's report analysed the shortcomings in royal financial administration (Mary put this into
Deflationary approach was a reduction in the price of basic foodstuffs
o…read more

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Chapter 1
o She moved to Framlingham
Northumberland did two things and both misfired:
o Northumberland took command of troops
o Naval squadron was sent to sea off Great Yarmouth to intercept Mary if she attempted to escape by
o Northumberland went to the area which didn't like him following Kett's and the navy switched to
Mary's side
Council proclaimed Mary Queen on 19 July, realising support was sweeping away from Northumberland
Northumberland proclaimed Mary Queen in Cambridge on 20 July…read more

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Rachel Jones 10
Chapter 1
Changes introduced by the
revised Book of Common
Prayer 1552
Key Change Reason for Change Significance of Change
Removal of remaining No longer fitted in with the Conservatives could no longer
`conservative' ceremonies regime's religious radicalism find anything in the prayer book
which they could accept
Rewriting of baptism, To make services more easily Showed Cranmer's desire to
confirmation and burial services understood by congregations see greater simplicity in church
Radical reform of communion Need for decisive change from…read more


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