Triumph of Elizabeth; Mary's Reign

Notes from the AQA A2 textbook chapter 2 covering Mary's reign

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Rachel Jones 1
Chapter 2
The Reign of Queen Mary, 155558
Haigh: `to the surprise and embarrassment of those politicians and local leaders who had supposed that there
was no choice but to obey Northumberland, Mary was swept to power by a revolution'
The Personality and Policies of Mary I
Mary's accession and the establishment of the Marian regime
Mary's accession was, on the whole, greeted favourably by the English people
o Some historians say it is due to it being a legitimate succession
o Haigh: reflection of devotion to the Catholic faith held up by most people swept to power by
a revolution
o The opposition to 1552 prayer book and confiscations of church goods ensured that `religion
may now be recognised as one of the elements of Mary's appeal'
Examples of assuming the `old religion' would be restored:
o Melton Mowbray: altar rebuilt and masses said
o Yorkshire: masses said since the start of August
o London: Altar set up on 23 August
o Yorkshire priest Robert Parkyn: `all this came to pass without compulsion of any act, statute,
proclamation or law'
Not widely accepted ­ trouble in some places:
o Lincolnshire, Dorset, Adisham, London, Essex, Kent and Norfolk
o Haigh: almost everywhere `there were phased and realistic programmes of restoration'
o `the real hallmark of the Marian Church...was local enthusiasm, an enthusiasm which produced
large sums of money, raised at great speed in bucolic ways, to devote to popular projects.'
Problems with the kingdom she was inheriting:
o Fundamental religious divisions
o She was not brought up to rule little political instinct to help her cope
o Most of her loyal supporters were not politically from the front rank and so had no experience of
government either
Bound to rely on some of Edward's councillors
Bishop Gardiner (Father's secretary) had been a conservative
Mary appointed as many as 50 councillors
o A. F. Pollard: Inevitably led to inefficient and factionridden government
o Councillor was an honorary title and so the working council was much smaller, dominated by Gardiner,
Winchester and Paget served under Edward: continuity
o Most of her working councillors did not hold household office
o Never completely trusted her key councillors
Paget his opposition to the restoration of the English Church to Rome
Gardiner failed to support her mother at the time of the break with Rome
Led her to trust foreigners: Philip II and Simon Renard
Spanish Marriage
Mary was anxious to get married essential to produce an heir for Catholic succession
Edward Courtenay, Earl of Devon

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Chapter 2
o Only English candidate
o Potential threat of factional rivalry husband's family would become more influential
o Lacked courtly skills
o Backed by Bishop Gardiner knew Spanish marriage would offend public opinion but no other clear
Philip II of Spain
o Mary's clear favourite Catholic and politically experienced
o Charles V (father) had proved worthy of her trust and offered advice, guidance and support
o Philip was prepared to do his duty but not happy
o He needed English…read more

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Chapter 2
o Wyatt marched on London, hoping to dissuade Mary or stage a coup and replace her with Elizabeth
o Duke of Norfolk was sent to deal with it but that failed
o Mary fortified London awaiting the rebels
o Wyatt crossed at Kingston but could not breach the City's defences
o Forced to surrender, Wyatt and chief supporters captured and executed, others released
90 supporters were executed
Significant rebellion:
o Close to London Mary's troops were weak so her…read more

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Chapter 2
Gardiner insisted that Pole must bring confirmation of the continued ownership of the lands in
secular hands
Failure to do so could result in parliamentary blocking of the return of Catholicism
Julius and Pole insisted that the English Church should submit to Rome first and then
dispensations might be awarded to landowners on an individual basis politically impossible
Compromise on Church lands:
o Statute of repeal would include a papal dispensation, giving it more legal force in Mary's mind
o…read more

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Chapter 2
o Strategy appears to have misfired burning Rogers and Taylor due to their popularity as preachers
only evoked public sympathy
Burning people of humble status only seems to have strengthened the impact of their
o The Council's worry is evident in their attempt to ban servants, apprentices and the young from
o Ultimately the policy failed to extinguish heresy could be a consequence of lack of time rather than
the extent of popular feeling
o Publication of Foxe's…read more

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Chapter 2
Mary's intimate circle made up of the Kenninghall faction who had remained devoted to her during Edward's
reign limited role in Council
Number of working councillors was relatively small and cohesive skilful administration
o Kept some of the councillors who had served Edward (Paget, Paulet, Petre)
1555 reform Philip partly responsible for setting up an `inner' council of nine members
o Combined working administrators (Paget, Petre) with a nucleus of clergymen (Gardiner, Heath)
o Tittler: although it did not always…read more

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Rachel Jones 7
Chapter 2
o Elizabeth also reaped the benefit from the introduction of a new Book of Rates in 1558 which raised
customs revenue dramatically
Alan Smith: the Marian reforms `were fundamental for Elizabeth's solvency and thus for the
Elizabethan achievement as a whole'
Full scale recoinage took place in Elizabeth's reign based entirely on plans drawn up in 15561558
C. E.…read more

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Chapter 2
o Pope Paul IV's withdrawal of the legatine commission from Pole which made it much more difficult
for the Cardinal to implement his policies
o Counterproductive nature of the policy of burning heretics
Loades: `quite suddenly what had appeared to be a discredited movement had become a
cause that brave men would die for and testify to in the face of death'
Successful militia and naval reforms, changes in finance
Loades: success in considerable strength in being able to enforce…read more


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