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Rachel Jones 1
Chapter 4

Foreign Relations and Internal Challenges
Foreign Policy

Scotland

Traditionally allied with France war with France often meant simultaneous war with Scotland
Concerns about the border security were always present
Queen Mary Stuart's flight into England added further complications to relations

Netherlands

Vital to England's trading…

Page 2

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Rachel Jones 2
Chapter 4

o Brought the Catholic Guise faction to power in France
Sought to make Scotland an instrument of French policy making
French troops were sent to garrison major Scottish fortresses led to conflict with the Lords
of the Congregation requesting assistance from their fellow Protestants south…

Page 3

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Rachel Jones 3
Chapter 4

Luck had disappeared Huguenot army was defeated and Conde was captured
o Duke of Guise was assassinated too
o Both sides leaderless agreed to accept peace terms and united to drive English out of Le Havre
o England forced to sign unfavourable peace at the…

Page 4

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Rachel Jones 4
Chapter 4

o Sour relationship

England and Scotland

Relations were linked with the issue of the succession Mary Stuart was the main Catholic claimant to the
throne whereas the councillors wanted a Protestant
Francis II's death put an end to any immediate threat that Mary posed forced…

Page 5

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Rachel Jones 5
Chapter 4

November 1572: Elizabeth intervened to underpin the authority of James Douglas, Earl of Morton, who was
regent and leader of the Protestant party
Relations would continue to be fraught

Attempts to expand trade in the Americas

Main centre of African trade was Guinea starting point…

Page 6

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Rachel Jones 6
Chapter 4

House of Commons also took an interest in succession

The Crisis of 1562

Autumn 1562: Elizabeth got smallpox and it seemed unlikely that she would survive: SUCCESSION CRISIS
Forced the Privy Council to consider the issue of succession
o Civil war, foreign invasion and religious…

Page 7

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Rachel Jones 7
Chapter 4

2 Nov: rumours of `hurt to be done to particular persons, and especially to Protestants'
7 Nov: Earl of Westmorland's tenants had assembled with arms at Brancepeth
o Sussex sent a messenger to Northumberland's residence where
9 Nov: at midnight the bells were rung to…

Page 8

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Rachel Jones 8
Chapter 4

The rebels carried the Five Wounds banner into Durham Cathedral
o Demonstrated his religious conservatism
o Linked the actions of the rebels in 1569 to the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536
Pope's excommunication coincided with the rebellion but that did not get issued until 22…

Page 9

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Rachel Jones 9
Chapter 4

Leicester himself seems to have been concerned more to undermine Sussex's position in the mind of the
Queen than to confront the rebels directly

The Significance of the Rebellion and Elizabethan Government

It shows that government worked
o Crown's servants acted sensibly in difficult circumstances…

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