Triumph of Elizabeth; Foreign Relations and Internal Challenges

Notes from the AQA A2 textbook Chapter 4: Foreign Relations and Internal Challenges

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Rachel Jones 1
Chapter 4
Foreign Relations and Internal Challenges
Foreign Policy
Traditionally allied with France war with France often meant simultaneous war with Scotland
Concerns about the border security were always present
Queen Mary Stuart's flight into England added further complications to relations
Vital to England's trading interests
Emergence of Protestantism in the Netherlands meant that some of Elizabeth's councillors felt that England
and the Netherlands shared a religious identity
Deterioration in AngloSpanish relations can be linked clearly with Dutch dissatisfaction
Elizabeth was fearful about the implications of closer Spanish control of the Netherlands could make an
invasion of England easier
France and Spain
At the start of the reign England was at war with France and on good terms with Spain
Throughout the reign relations with France gradually improved
There was a steady deterioration in relations with Spain England was at war for the last 18 years of her
Influencing Policy Making
In general, foreign policy was left to the councillors
MacCaffrey: `it became their business to devise the best possible mode of proceeding'
Major councillors in foreign policy were: William Cecil and Sir Francis Walsingham
Traditional view of foreign policy: distinction between attitudes of two councillors
o Walsingham consistent advocation of Protestant foreign policy
o Cecil aggressive Protestant then became much more cautious and defensive
Newer view: John Guy
o Cecil's view remained much more aggressively Protestant
o Cecil had to make himself appear more conservative to ensure Elizabeth's support
From CateauCambresis to Troyes, 155964
Intervention in Scotland
Elizabeth came to the throne at a bad time for English prestige and selfesteem
War with France going badly (loss of Calais), cost lots
CateauCambresis April 1559
o Secured peace between Spain and France
o France would retain Calais for eight years then return it or pay fine
June 1559: Henry II died in a jousting match
o Succeeded by Francis II, married to Mary, Queen of Scots

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Chapter 4
o Brought the Catholic Guise faction to power in France
Sought to make Scotland an instrument of French policy making
French troops were sent to garrison major Scottish fortresses led to conflict with the Lords
of the Congregation requesting assistance from their fellow Protestants south of the border
Elizabeth was reluctant to intervene in Scotland she loathed Knox
Cecil supported intervention:
o Sympathised with the religious predicament of Scottish Protestants
o England would be more secure without a potential French…read more

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Chapter 4
Luck had disappeared Huguenot army was defeated and Conde was captured
o Duke of Guise was assassinated too
o Both sides leaderless agreed to accept peace terms and united to drive English out of Le Havre
o England forced to sign unfavourable peace at the Treaty of Troyes in 1564
Lost Calais big blow to prestige so much more cautious about supporting Protestant causes
Foreign policy after 1564
From Troyes to Blois: England and France
Relations determined by the instability…read more

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Chapter 4
o Sour relationship
England and Scotland
Relations were linked with the issue of the succession Mary Stuart was the main Catholic claimant to the
throne whereas the councillors wanted a Protestant
Francis II's death put an end to any immediate threat that Mary posed forced return to Scotland in 1561
created uncertainty
Mary was politically sensible to accept the religious domination of the Protestants became politically reliant
on Protestant politicians like William Maitland and the Earl of Moray
Marriage to…read more

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Chapter 4
November 1572: Elizabeth intervened to underpin the authority of James Douglas, Earl of Morton, who was
regent and leader of the Protestant party
Relations would continue to be fraught
Attempts to expand trade in the Americas
Main centre of African trade was Guinea starting point for Hawkins' move into the Americas, inventing the
English slave trade
1562: three expeditions, acquiring slaves in Africa that were taken to South America and sold
First two expeditions successful although annoyed the Spanish authorities…read more

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Chapter 4
House of Commons also took an interest in succession
The Crisis of 1562
Autumn 1562: Elizabeth got smallpox and it seemed unlikely that she would survive: SUCCESSION CRISIS
Forced the Privy Council to consider the issue of succession
o Civil war, foreign invasion and religious strife could all occur if she had died
o No consensus to who should be named successor
o Lady Catherine Grey was disgraced and despised by Elizabeth
o No overt support for Mary Queen of…read more

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Chapter 4
2 Nov: rumours of `hurt to be done to particular persons, and especially to Protestants'
7 Nov: Earl of Westmorland's tenants had assembled with arms at Brancepeth
o Sussex sent a messenger to Northumberland's residence where
9 Nov: at midnight the bells were rung to signal the start of the rebellion
14 Nov: Westmorland and Northumberland's forces marched to Durham where they seized the city and heard
mass in the cathedral
They moved to west of York, Bramham Moor
o…read more

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Chapter 4
The rebels carried the Five Wounds banner into Durham Cathedral
o Demonstrated his religious conservatism
o Linked the actions of the rebels in 1569 to the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536
Pope's excommunication coincided with the rebellion but that did not get issued until 22 Feb 1570 fail
Fletcher/MacCulloch identify strong Catholic influence in the people who launched the revolt
Militant Associates
Resolve of the leaders may have been stiffened by the militancy of their associates, Norton and Neville
Countess…read more

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Chapter 4
Leicester himself seems to have been concerned more to undermine Sussex's position in the mind of the
Queen than to confront the rebels directly
The Significance of the Rebellion and Elizabethan Government
It shows that government worked
o Crown's servants acted sensibly in difficult circumstances
o Cecil spent huge amounts of time on the matter, commissioning and studying a map of Durham to help
come up with appropriate courses of action
Showed limitations:
o Lack of comprehension of the cultural…read more


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