- Created by: lwilson23
- Created on: 14-03-19 21:36
- developed by William Congreve in early 1800s, used by both Army and Navy. Saw prominent use in bombardment of Bouologne and Copenhagen in 1807 - frightening but ineffective weapon.
- brought in by Middleton in the 1770s, bottom of hulls coppered/on deck cannons introduced. The sliding mechanism of the cannons meant they were quick to reload, and deadly. Range limited.
- muzzle loading Howitzer cannons in Napoleonic wars were useful at wiping out dense formations of men, but limited as they couldn't fire over hills/weren't manouverable.
- William Armstrong making the cannons breech-loading (1858) only increased their effectiveness - new shells also increased the range and accuracy of cannons. Impacted both Army and Navy. Armstrong's design still in use today.
THE BROWN BESS MUSKET (NAPOLEONIC):
- smoothbore in Napoleonic, became rifled in Crimea making it more accurate.
- muzzle loading was lengthy in nature - good training could reduce reload speed however.
THE BAKER RIFLE:
- used by riflemen in Pen Wars, more accurate over range than BB but longer reload speed.
THE PATTERN ENFIELD RIFLED MUSKET (CRIMEA):
- introduced in 1853 and saw use in Crimea, was rifled for greater accuracy and used conical 'minie ball' bullets which gave the weapon better range.
LEE-METFORD RIFLE (BOER):
- bolt action - all variants used .303 bullets. Breech-loading so could fire 25-30 shots a minute - a massive advancement from muzzle loading.
THE SHORT MAGAZINE LEE ENFIELD - SMLE (WWI):
- standard issue for WWI Tommy soldiers - the best rifle in the world at this point. Reliable and lightweight, with the bolt action and breech loading being the same as the Boer War.
- ended traditional warfare - brought about trench warfare as cavalry charges and mass formation made obsolete - made defense of positions easier.
- three types:
- The Maxim Machine Gun - first machine gun (600 RPM).
- The Vickers (1914-16) - water cooled to prevent overheating - heavy due to this - stationary.
- The Lewis (1916-18) - air cooled rather than water cooled so lighter - more manouverable - American design.
- early tanks (Mark I) unreliable, but Mark IV and V became more useful - slow, with unreliable engines, but devastating if used effectively.
- three types:
- Male - equipped with Hotchkiss Cannon (used to destroy positions).
- Female - equipped with 4 Vickers Machine Guns (people-killers).
- Hermaphrodite - equipped with both but the offensive capabilities were smaller.
- development of tanks and machine guns showed the importance of industry and tech over manpower. A war of machines.