- Created by: Daniel1662
- Created on: 13-05-18 14:37
Reduction in the size of the navy after 1815
- No navy left which could threaten Britain.
- Became more important to police trade and protect commerce.
- Abolished slavery in 1807- Royal Navy enforcing ban on international and British waters
- Most of the Battleships which fought against Napleon were decommissioned
- 1817- 13 battleships still on active service..
- Main strenght came from frigates, sloops and brigs.
- Reorganised into squadrons- North America, South America, West Indies, Western Mediterranean, West Africa, Cape Colony, East Indies and Eastern Mediteranean.
- Gunboat diplomacy- Algiers 1816, Acre 1840, retalliation for acts thought to be against British interests
- Ottoman Fleet destroyed in 1827 at the Battle of Navarino
- Royal Navy stopped Iberian fleets acting effectively, thereby helping revolutionaries 1820s
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The Shift from Sail to steam
The Shift from Sail to steam:
- HMS Meda & HMS Gladiator first steam driven ships
- Not until 1850, did Britain begin a programme of building steam powered battleships using a scre propeller, rather than a paddle.
- French began introducing steam engines in the early 1840s
- First steam powered battleships- HMS Agamennom was built in 1852. HMS Devastation, first ship without regging in 1873
Wood to Iron:
- First fully iron Warship was launched in 1860- HMS Warrior
- Allowed for heavier ships
- Better gunnery- Armstrong Whitworth 110 pounders.
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Graham's reforms, 1832
New ships and gunnery:
- Could call on a handful of large battleships with 120 or 80 guns, but most carried 74 or 60 guns.
- The navy had been reduced too far and Graham began a systematic programme of refitting existing ships and building new battleships.
- Felt the art of gunnery had been neglected- issued an order that all crew should practice to improve skills. Also set up a school of gunnery and commissioned the HMS excellent, for the particular purpose.
- 800 captains on active service. Those without a ship were put on half pay. Based on influence not intelligence. Graham introduced a regulation that set out a minimumamount of service an officer had to have in order to move up the ranks.
- Abolition of the Naval Office and Victualling board- placed under naval control.
- Five principle officers would each be in charge of a certain area. Principal officers worked at the adimirality and communication became quicker
- Graham also extended the widening of Royal Navy control to the dockyards.- Greater efficiency in servicing and resupplying ships
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Fisher's reforms at the admiralty, 1904-1910
Changing role of the navy:
- Blockades, prevent foriegn invasion, protect trade, protect food imports.
Two power standard:
- Naval defence Act 1899- Britain's naval strenght should be at least equal to its two biggest rivals. (France and Germany)
- Germany- unified 1871- all ships were modern and had more industrial capacity. Some Royal Navy ships were not fit for service.
- Tirpitz- German Navy 2/3 of the Royal Navy it could defeat it.
- Lead to the arms race
- Reforms of officer trading- all officers taught together until 22 years old.
- Officer cadets would all have to study history, navigation and seamanship, along with science, mathematics and engineering.
- Also bought in officers whose technical expertise he valued.
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Fisher's reforms at the admiralty, 1904-1910 (Part
Balancing the budget:
- Sold off 90 ships and put 64 in reserve- too weak to fight and too slow to run away
- Created the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve in order to augment the Royal Navy Reserve.
- Britain had a large reserve to call on in times of war
- The strenght of the Mediterranean Fleet was reduced to 12 ships and the 5 battleships stationed in China were sent back to Britain.
- South Atlantic fleet was abolished. Channel Fleet moved to Gibraltar and was renamed the Atlantic Fleet.
- Home Fleet became the Channel Fleet. Reserve Fleet stationed at the Thames.
Effect of the Russo-Japanese War:
- Showed the importance of having more and bigger guns
- Importance of Submarines
- Building of Battle cruisers
- 20,000 tonnes. Ten 12" guns. Could fire 18,000 yards and a top speed of 21.6 knots.
- Had technology which could take into account the direction and speed of the target
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Naval Arms Race
- Germans started the construction of 9 dreadnoughts in 1908
- By 1914, Germany would have 17 dreadnoughts to Britain's 29. The French would have 10, the Russians 4 and the Austrians 3
- Orion class (Super Dreadnought)- 22,000 tonnes, 13.5" guns.
- 1912- Queen Elizabeth Class- 27,00 tonnes and armed with 15" guns.
- Germany realised their primay aim was to defeat France on land, so stopped their dreadnought programme and focused more of their resources on the army.
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