Changes to Weaponry 1790-1918

View mindmap
  • Changes to weaponry 1790-1918
    • Machine guns (Maxim and Vickers)
      • Energy of recoil used to change cartridges
      • Water jacket around barrel to prevent overheating
      • Needed a group of men to set up, but could be fired alone
      • Vickers lighter and more reliable
      • Parts easier to produce for the Vickers, and used standard rifle ammo
      • Easier to set up and use Vickers
      • 2 for each battalion in 1914
      • 1915- lighter Lewis guns
      • Eventually each division had its own machine gun battalion
      • Defensive weapons aided the creation of trench warfare and mass casualties
      • High rate of fire
      • The losses could be afforded more due to population increase and conscript armies
      • Required advanced training to clean parts etc.
    • Fuse 106
    • Breech-loading cannon
      • Muzzle-loading cannon took a long time to reload and lots of gunpowder, which meant the barrel had to be cleaned regularly
      • Gunpowder and bullet loaded together
      • Faster reload process, as cannon didn't have to be moved much
      • First practical gun developed 1858
      • Improved accuracy, loading time, and barrel wear
      • Used soft metal screws which expanded with fire to reduce wear down the barrel and increase accuracy by putting more spin on the shell
      • Ammo more expensive, larger, better trained gun crews needed, more maintenance
        • So the army returned to muzzle loaders in the 1870s
      • 1880s onwards- breech loaders became the norm
      • Adapted Armstrongs used by army and navy in Boer War
      • Larger breech loaders used as turrets on the deck
      • Improved range and reliability increased the size of battlefields
      • Without them, turret-mounted guns were impossible
      • Helped to change the nature of warfare to trenches
        • Increased casualties
      • Could fire further than gunners could see for the first time
        • 'Spotters' used to see if artillery landed in the right place
          • Led to development in signalling e.g. flags, telephone, radio, maps and artillery spotting by planes
    • Enfield rifles
    • Brown Bess muskets
    • Aircraft
    • Air radio/photo technology
    • Tanks
    • Carronades
      • Fired grapeshot at short range
      • Initially intended for merchant vessels to fire from deck and keep carrying capacity high
      • Short barrel and wide muzzle meant a better angle of range (more accuracy)
      • Fast to reload, used little gunpowder, and devastated the deck before boarding
      • Carronades on the Victory blew an entire gun deck at Trafalgar
      • Not used after 1850 because of improvements to range of standard cannon fire
      • Led to HE shell development in cannons
    • Congreve Rockets
      • Caused little damage, but noise and smoke terrified the enemy
      • Used alongside conventional weapons at Copenhagen
      • Inaccurate, so ienffective
      • Rocket rails easy to fit to ships, and rockets were often used for coastal bombardment
      • Being an Indian veteran, Wellington knew the dangers of using them and their inaccuracy
      • Didn't store well- reacted badly to high temperatures and lost strength over time
      • Rockets were developed in the 19th century, but no longer used with new steel artillery
    • Howitzers
    • Steam-powered ships (iron clad)
    • Barbed Wire

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all The British Experience of Warfare 1790-1918 resources »