- Created by: mrevv
- Created on: 01-11-19 10:51
- Religious motivations were mostly the same as in the 1st crusade.
- The spark- Edessa was taken on Christmas Day 1144 by Zengi.
- This threatened Jerusalem and shocked Christendom.
- QP bull set out indulgences and protected their property.
- While indulgences in the first crusade came from penance, in the second they came as thanks from God for fighting for him.
- The papacy wanted to maintain the strength and vitality of the Latin states.
- The loss of territory would be a blow to the Pope's authority.
- The Pope's action was reactionary, instead of preactionary like in the 1st crusade.
- Moreover, the Pope's political ambitions were not in Europe.
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- Family tradition meant that knights had to uphold the family name.
- They had to maintain their prestige and their ancestors' achievements.
- Edessa's fall caused the West to realise the threats which were already present in the East.
- Chivalry started to emerge- virtuous warfare developed for fighting infidels.
- Louis VII was praised for his acts against the Turks in Asia Minor.
- Being chivalric was more important than being a good general.
- However, these ideas were not fully realised yet.
- 1120, the Templars were founded as Christian knights, building the idea of holy war.
- Land was no longer a motivation, since they owed service to their kings and it was already conquered. They also no longer cared about the Byzantine Empire- this shows thier motivations were not helping thier Christian brothers any more, it was serving thier own leaders.
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- Eugenius III's Papal bull, Quantum praedecessores, did not initially have much impact.
- It was re-issued and Bernard of Clairvaux went on a preaching tour.
- Bernard was the most influential man in Christendom, and he persuaded Kings Louis VII and Conrad III to crusade. Without this, Urban wouldn't have got a response.
- Involvement of king led to greater recruitment from their subjects.
- Kings could pay for mercenaries in addition to using feudal ties.
- 1146, Maurice of Glons gave up his rights to a fief in Liege to crusade.
- Bernard was a Cistercian monk who wanted a return to St Benedict's rules.
- Bernard went on a preaching tour of France and Germany.
- Riley Smith says Bernard was 'the most powerful crusade propaganda of all time.'
- Bernard wanted to link the crusades by protecting Holy Jerusalem.
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