Causes of the 2nd crusade

  • Created by: mrevv
  • Created on: 01-11-19 10:51

The Papacy

  • Religious motivations were mostly the same as in the 1st crusade.
  • The spark- Edessa was taken on Christmas Day 1144 by Zengi.
  • This threatened Jerusalem and shocked Christendom. 
  • QP bull set out indulgences and protected their property.
  • While indulgences in the first crusade came from penance, in the second they came as thanks from God for fighting for him. 
  • The papacy wanted to maintain the strength and vitality of the Latin states. 
  • The loss of territory would be a blow to the Pope's authority.
  • The Pope's action was reactionary, instead of preactionary like in the 1st crusade.
  • Moreover, the Pope's political ambitions were not in Europe. 
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Motivations

  • Family tradition meant that knights had to uphold the family name.
  • They had to maintain their prestige and their ancestors' achievements.
  • Edessa's fall caused the West to realise the threats which were already present in the East.
  • Chivalry started to emerge- virtuous warfare developed for fighting infidels. 
  • Louis VII was praised for his acts against the Turks in Asia Minor.
  • Being chivalric was more important than being a good general.
  • However, these ideas were not fully realised yet.
  • 1120, the Templars were founded as Christian knights, building the idea of holy war.
  • Land was no longer a motivation, since they owed service to their kings and it was already conquered. They also no longer cared about the Byzantine Empire- this shows thier motivations were not helping thier Christian brothers any more, it was serving thier own leaders.
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Recruitment

  • Eugenius III's Papal bull, Quantum praedecessores, did not initially have much impact.
  • It was re-issued and Bernard of Clairvaux went on a preaching tour. 
  • Bernard was the most influential man in Christendom, and he persuaded Kings Louis VII and Conrad III to crusade. Without this, Urban wouldn't have got a response.
  • Involvement of king led to greater recruitment from their subjects. 
  • Kings could pay for mercenaries in addition to using feudal ties. 
  • 1146, Maurice of Glons gave up his rights to a fief in Liege to crusade.
  • Bernard was a Cistercian monk who wanted a return to St Benedict's rules.
  • Bernard went on a preaching tour of France and Germany.
  • Riley Smith says Bernard was 'the most powerful crusade propaganda of all time.'
  • Bernard wanted to link the crusades by protecting Holy Jerusalem. 
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