Causes of the 2nd and 3rd crusades

  • Created by: mrevv
  • Created on: 01-11-19 10:51

The Papacy (2)

  • Religious motivations were mostly the same as in the 1st crusade.
  • The spark- Edessa was taken on Christmas Day 1144 by Zengi leaving 15k dead.
  • This threatened Jerusalem and shocked Christendom. 
  • QP bull set out indulgences and protected their property.
  • While indulgences in the first crusade came from penance, in the second they came as thanks from God for fighting for him. 
  • The papacy wanted to maintain the strength and vitality of the Latin states. 
  • The loss of territory would be a blow to the Pope's authority.
  • The Pope's action was reactionary, instead of preactionary like in the 1st crusade.
  • Moreover, the Pope's political ambitions were not in Europe. 
  • The third crusade was caused by Saladin's 1187 campaign which captured King Guy and the True cross- Pope Urban III died of shock and Jerusalem fell. 
  • Gregory VIII released AT bull in 1187. It was reissued by Pope Celestine III. 
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Motivations (2)

  • QP bull set out indulgences and protected their property.
  • While indulgences in the first crusade came from penance, in the second they came as thanks from God for fighting for him.
  • Family tradition meant that knights had to uphold the family name.
  • They had to maintain their prestige and their ancestors' achievements.
  • Edessa's fall caused the West to realise the threats which were already present in the East.
  • Chivalry started to emerge- virtuous warfare developed for fighting infidels.
  • Louis VII was praised for his acts against the Turks in Asia Minor.
  • Being chivalric was more important than being a good general.
  • However, these ideas were not fully realised yet.
  • 1120, the Templars were founded as Christian knights, building the idea of holy war.
  • Land was no longer a motivation, since they owed service to their kings and it was already conquered. They also no longer cared about the Byzantine Empire- this shows thier motivations were not helping thier Christian brothers any more, it was serving thier own leaders.
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Bernard of Clairvaux (2)

  • Eugenius III's Papal bull, Quantum praedecessores, did not initially have much impact.
  • It was re-issued and Bernard of Clairvaux went on a preaching tour. 
  • Bernard was the most influential man in Christendom, and he persuaded Kings Louis VII and Conrad III to crusade. Without this, Urban wouldn't have got a response.
  • Involvement of king led to greater recruitment from their subjects.
  • Bernard was a Cistercian monk who wanted a return to St Benedict's rules.
  • Bernard went on a preaching tour of France and Germany.
  • Riley Smith says Bernard was 'the most powerful crusade propaganda of all time.'
  • Bernard wanted to link the crusades by protecting Holy Jerusalem. 
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Recruitment (2)

  • The later crusades clarified which sins would be forgiven- all the sins on the journey were included, and you received indulgences for attempting, not succeeding in reaching Jerusalem. 
  • Pope Paschal II threatened to excommunicate first crusaders who abandoned the cause.
  • Archbishops such as Baldwin of Canterbury set off in Wales in 1188 and recruited 3k. 
  • St Bernard restored 235 cripples to health in a preaching tour. 
  • Later Popes regulated preachers to stop ones like Peter the hermit recruiting the wrong sort of crusader by sending designated legates.
  • Kings could pay for mercenaries during the second crusade and use feudal ties.
  • In 1146, Maurice of Glons gave up his rights to a fief to crusade. 
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Chivalry (2)

  • The old rules applied to horsed soldiers, who wanted to be courageous and win.
  • The new rules applied to aristocrats who wanted to be polite, courteous, loyal and skilled.
  • Chivalry included fighting for Jesus and faith was part of knightly culture. 
  • Knights often trained in holy orders to protect pilgrims and Christian sites. 
  • Chivalry's potential was realised in the 3rd crusade with King Richard's developments. 
  • Most wanted booty, some wanted to settle but this stopped in later crusades. 
  • Only up to a quarter of knights settled in the holy land (300/1200)
  • They lost most of thier booty reaching the West so they did not make profits. 
  • Wealth was a deterrent, not inspiring factor. 
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Political (3)

  • From 1170 Saladin had started to invade Outremer
  • 1187, Jerusalem was taken after the Franks were defeated at Hattin.
  • King Guy and the True Cross were captured- Urban III died from shock
  • The Christians were forced to leave the city after paying 30k bezants. 
  • Pope Gregory VIII issued Audati Tremenda in 1187 calling for a truce between the English and French for a crusade. Celestine III reissued it three months later.
  • Many small attempts to crusade had been made, such as Alexander III's attempt to launch a crusade in 1165 to help Bohemond III from Nur Al-Din. 
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