Third and Fourth Crusade

  • Created by: GhostRat
  • Created on: 25-02-19 18:51

Preaching & Preparation for the Third Crusade: 1189 - 1192

Battle of Hattin (1187) as a trigger cause → Audita Tremendi!

Led to Saladin capturing Jerusalem and taking the true cross

  • The Call to Crusade: Audita Tremendi 1187 → ‘a cause for weeping’, published by  Gregory VIII, used Hattin as a justification for holy war (mourning).

  • For the first time Saladin was named and likened to the devil.

  • BUT MORE EMPHASIS ON GUILT:  Hattin  was blamed on Franks who failed to show penance and Christian’s of the West for their guilt and failure to repent for Edessa,

  • Offered full remission of all confessed sins and spiritual and temporal rewards (immunity from legal prosecution & interest of debts under church → it was aimed at the nobility → asked not to wear precious clothing, this was pious not for land

Preaching the crusade...

Archbishop Joscius of Tyre brought the message of Hattin to Europe…

  • Gregory VII deployed two legates: Joscious and Cardinal Henry of Albano → travelled to Angevin lands (Le Mans in 1888) and France & Germany during major Christian festivals → 1888 Mainz & Paris = more sophisticated = controlled recruitment, no free preachers like P the H

  • Crusading became popular with secular society by using the cultural zeitgeist of troubadours → 1170, 13 contest for Eleanor in SW France → extended the message of Audita Tremendi (included True Cross, emphasis on shame + obligation)

  • Involved Kings: critical to recruitment due to chain reactions of vassalage

Why did Gregory VIII call the crusade?

  • Eastern triggers: 1187 failure at Hattin & loss of military orders at the Springs of Cresson

  • Religious motives: recapture the True Cross & perform penance for sin

  • Political motives: travelled to Pisa to end their hostilities with Genoa so that both fleets could join together in crusade → 1177 Treaty of Rome = not all tensions had been resolvedwith Barbarossa =  crusade = temporary end to tensions with HRE → he returned possessions of Countess Matilda of Tuscany which had been part of the papal state

What motivated participants to join the Third Crusade?

Richard I

  • Had a personal connection to the HL = great grandson of Fulk of Anjou, cousin to Sibylla & former feudal overlord to King Guy

  • Chance to prove himself: escape the Angevin shadow, gain honour & chivalry

  • Seek penance: 1173&89 rebellion against his father and obligation to fulfill his vow (1172 Avaranche)

Henry II

  • January 1188 at Gisors with Philip II & Joscious, sermon where a cross appeared in the sky → both kings promised to go together (meant that France could not take Angevin land and vice versa)

  • His vow to Alexander in 1172 at Avaranche but he died in 1189

Philip II

  • 1188 at Gisors → would not have gone without Henry II, threat on his territory

  • 1187 Angevins invade Berry: Richard sided with Philip in Paris → friendship and unity with Angevins = mutual trust to move

Frederick Barbarossa

  • Needed an opportunity for military glory since his


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