Conservative Governments 1951-1964

  • Created by: Emilia1
  • Created on: 29-03-17 14:57
What three scandals negatively affected the Conservatives in the 1964 election
Vassal Inquiry 1963, Kim Philby 1963, Profumo Affair 1963
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What did the French Agricultural minister say to explain the French veto of Britain's EEC application 1963?
'At present, in the six there are five hens and one cockerel. If you join, with other countries, there will be perhaps seven or eight hens. But there will be two cockerels.'
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What happened on 'The Night of the Long Knives' July 1962?
Macmillan sacked 7 members of his cabinet including his chancellor Selwyn Lloyd
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Who was the Conservative leadership election between before Home entered the race in 1963? And who did Macmillan originally support?
R.A Butler and Lord Hailsham. Macmillan disliked Butler but withdrew his support of Hailsham as he thought Home would be a safer bet
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What nuclear agreement did Britain enter into which was a factor in de Gaulle's veto in 1963?
After the failure to reach an Anglo-French agreement on nuclear arms development, Britain entered into an agreement with America where the US would supply Britain with Polaris missiles
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Which two people was the Labour party split between 1951-64?
Nye Bevan and Hugh Gaitskell
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What policies did Bevan stand for 1951-64?
More power for the unions, unilateral nuclear disarmament until 1957, against prescription charges (resigned over them in 1951), left-wing
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Who was Nye Bevan?
Minister for health in Atlee's government, architect of the NHS, hero of the Labour left
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Who was Hugh Gaitskell?
Chancellor of the Exchequer 1950-51, introduced prescription charges, right of Labour, became leader in 1955 defeating Bevan
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What did Gaitskell attempt at the 1959 Labour conference?
To abolish Clause IV, which committed the party to nationalisation but backed down due to opposition
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What did Gaitskell get Labour to reject in 1961?
Unilateral Nuclear Disarmament
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When were the Conservative 'Give-Away' Budgets?
1955- Butler made £134million in tax cuts, and 1959- tax cuts of £370million
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Who was Peter Thorneycroft?
Believed in monetarism, wanting to limit wage increases and to cut the money supply. He resigned in 1958 from Chancellor as Macmillan rejected his spending cuts
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What did the Beeching report in 1963 recommend?
Massive cuts in the rail network including closure of 30% of the rail network
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When was full employment achieved?
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What is Butskellism?
Butler's economic policies were so close to Gaitskell's that it was suggested that the two formed a consensus
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What effect did the Suez Crisis have on the economy?
Pressure from the US exposed Britain's financial weakness and started a run on the pound (rapid fall in the value of the pound in international currency markets)
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How much did men's wages increase by 1951 to 1961?
£8.30 in 1951 to £15.35 in 1961
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How much money was Britain spending on defence?
£1.7 billion (10% of the GDP)
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Why wasn't inflation such a big problem 1951 to 1964?
Inflation never overtook the rise in wages so people were still able to buy more for their money
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What was 'Stop-go' economics?
Government controls to curb excessive inflation. High taxation was used to control excessive spending that would lead to an unwanted rise in imports and a balance of payment deficit
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What was the Balance of Payment deficit in 1964?
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What did the acceleration in birth rate mean?
by 1961 there was 51 million people in Britain, 5% more than 1951
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What happened to the rate of house building 1952-55?
increased by 50%
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When did rationing end?
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What made women financially dependent?
Mortgages and bank accounts were held in men's names
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Between 1957 and 1959 what helped liberate women?
54% rise in households owning a washing machine and 58% rise in those owning a fridge
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What was the aim of the Family Allowance?
to ensure women didn't have to work
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When was equal pay achieved for teachers? and civil servants?
1952 and 1954
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What five things showed a loss of deference to the Establishment?
Satire boom, Profumo affair, 'Angry Young Men', CND from 1958, Suez Crisis 1956
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What was Butler's quote about social mobility?
'divided not so much between 'haves' and 'have nots' but between 'haves' and 'haves mores'
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What allowed the increase in social mobility?
Financial credit and hire purchase
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What did Macmillan's government had that gave it the image of 'The Establishment'
A duke, heir to a barony, Marquess and 3 earls
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What is the most famous play from the 'Angry Young Men' used to attack the behaviour of the upper class?
Look Back In Anger
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What 3 publications/programmes created the satire boom?
Private Eye 1961, Beyond the Fringe 1960, TWTWTW 1962
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What percentage of the population did teenagers make up in 1959?
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When did National service end?
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Who were the Mods?
Rode scooters, wore smart suits and listened to 'sophisticated' pop music
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Who were the Rockers?
Rode heavy motorcycles, wore leather, listened to rock and roll (which reached Britain in 1955 with Bill Haley's 'Rock around the Clock'
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Who were the Teddy Boys?
Wore clothes derived from Edwardian Fashions such as long coats, narrow trousers and winkepicker shoes. Seen to challenge older people and their ideas about social order
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What happened in Clacton, Margate and Brighton in May 1964?
Large scale, organised rioting with fighting lasting two days in Brighton and the police struggling to restore order. Public reactions=moral panic with hysterical descriptions of knife-wielding hooligans undermining the foundations of society (exagg)
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In what year did unemployment reach 1 million?
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What were the disadvantages of Churchill?
-Old and people were starting to loose faith in him -Seen as very war-minded by public who were keen to avoid war
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By how many seats did Eden manage to increase the Conservative majority by in 1955 election?
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In what way was Eden similar to Churchill?
He did not care for domestic policies, leaving it to his deputy Butler. He was committed to keeping Britain as a world power which it could not afford
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How did the Korean War start in 1950?
Forces from North Korea supported by the Soviets and China invaded South Korea
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How many troops did Britain send to Korea and what effect did this have on Britain's position in the world?
90,000 (2nd only to the US), Britain played a major role in world affairs despite economic restraints but US was still a greater power
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What was the result of the Korean war?
Ceasefire in 1953 with 1000 British troops dead
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What started the Suez crisis in 1956?
US withdrew their funding from Colonel Nasser for the Aswan Dam when they learnt he had also approached the Soviets for funds. Desperate, Nasser nationalised the Suez canal in July 1956. Eden did not want Nasser to have that much power over oil suppl
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What were the plans made between the English French and Israeli's in October 1956?
Israeli's would attack Egypt and then England and France would 'step in' as a peace keeping force once they had reached the canal
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Why did the Soviets only get involoved in the Suez crisis in November 1956?
Because they were distracted by the Hungarian uprising
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Why did Eden accept the UN demand for disengagement so close to a successful mission in Suez?
-Strength of opposition from Gaitskell -fury of Americans -Failure to gain international backing -Soviet threat -UN condemnation -lack of commonwealth support -fall in Britains currency reserves
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When did Britain withdraw from A) India, B) Ghana C) Cyprus and Nigeria D) Tanganykia and Sierra Leone E) Uganda F) Kenya?
A) 1947, B) 1957, C) 1960, D) 1961, E) 1962, F) 1963
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What was the Mau Mau rebellion?
Rebellion for independence in Kenya in 1952
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What signalled the change in policy towards decolonisation?
Macmillan's 'Winds of Change' speech
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Why was Britain's decolonisation seen as successful?
It was more swift and less violent than French and Belgium and Portugal's withdrawals
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How did the EEC begin?
1950 with the Schuman Plan for a coal and steel community between France and Germany, 1955 international conference in Sicily, 1957 Treaty of Rome
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What was the EFTA and when was it formed?
European Free Trade Association set up in 1959 by Britain including countries of Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden and Switzerland
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When did Macmillan submit Britain's first EEC application?
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What did Labour MP Morrison say as to why Britain did not want to join the EEC before 1961?
'The Durham miners won't wear it, I'm afraid'
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What happened in 1962 that contributed to de Gaulle's veto of Britain's EEC application?
Macmillan negotiated the Nassau Agreement with America that Britain would buy polaris missiles
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How did Thorneycroft describe Britain in the Cuban Missile crisis?
As bystanders
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What organisation was Britain a founding member of in 1949?
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When was Britain's first atomic bomb test? and when was it's first Hydrogen bomb test?
1952, making it the 3rd country in the world to have nuclear weapons but by then US and USSR were already testing their hydrogen bombs. Britain would test theirs in 1958
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What agreement did Britain and America come to in 1958 over nuclear weapons?
Mutual Defence Agreement which led to a dependence of Polaris missiles from America when Britain abandoned Blue Streak in 1960
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When was the CND formed and when were the Aldermaston marches?
CND formed in 1958, Aldermaston marches 1958- 8000 people and 1959 when it was even bigger
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Who was Mary Whitehouse?
Birmingham housewife on a 'moral crusade' in 1963. She led the backlash against 'immorality and depravity' in the media
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What piece of media displayed A) Racial tension B) gritty realism C) gang violence D) breakdown censorship and social taboos E) controversy about social issues?
A) Sapphire 1956 (crime thriller, sex and violence) B) Z cars C) Clockwork Orange 1962 D) 'A Taste of Honey' 1958 play and Victim 1961 E) Cathy Come Home 1962
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Why was 'Lady Chatterley's Lover' so famous in 1962?
High profile court case under the Obscenity Act, penguin won and sold 2 million copies
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What happened to the number of criminal offences between 1955 and 1965?
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In 1951 what was society like?
Deferential and conformist, ingrained respect for authourity, class distinctions from speech and clothes, class loyalties strong within political parties
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What did the 1962 Commonwealth Immigrants Act do?
permitted only those with government issued employment vouchers
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What caused the Nottinghill Riots in 1958?
August 1958 gangs of white youths went on '****** hunts' after pub brawls in Nottingham, a week later violence broke out in Nottinghill where large concentration of people from the Caribbean. Police were unprepared and lacked experience in dealing
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In the 1950s there were 676,000 immigrants and 1.32 million migrants, what were the figures in 1960s?
1.25 million immigrants and 1.92 million migrants
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Who was Oswald Mosley?
Leader of British fascism, union movement candidate in the 1959 election for Kensington North (inc Nottinghill) on a platform of repatriation
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What was the 1962 Commonwealth Immigration Act in response to?
The Salmon Report which approached the race riots as issue of law and order and not racism
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What did the French Agricultural minister say to explain the French veto of Britain's EEC application 1963?


'At present, in the six there are five hens and one cockerel. If you join, with other countries, there will be perhaps seven or eight hens. But there will be two cockerels.'

Card 3


What happened on 'The Night of the Long Knives' July 1962?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Who was the Conservative leadership election between before Home entered the race in 1963? And who did Macmillan originally support?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What nuclear agreement did Britain enter into which was a factor in de Gaulle's veto in 1963?


Preview of the front of card 5
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