Crusades - like everything you need

  • Created by: ErLou
  • Created on: 03-06-18 15:54

Muslim Sunni Faith - 11th Century

  • Largest denomination in Islam.
  • Historical roots in the majority group who followed Abu Bakr, an effective leader, as Muhammad's successor.
  • Believe they follow the 'sunnah' or 'custom' of the Prophet.
  • 940 million.
  • 90% of total Muslims.
  • Located in most Muslim countries.
  • Leaders 'imams'.
  • Holy sites include Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem.
  • Seljuk Turks were Sunni.
  • Dominant apart from in Egypt.
  • Leadership in Baghdad.
1 of 188

Muslim Shia Faith - 11th Century

  • Followed Ali, the closest relative of Muhammed.
  • 120 million.
  • 10% of total Muslims.
  • Dominant in Iran, Iraq, Yemen, Egypt.
  • Leaders 'mujahids'.
  • Holy sites include Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Majaf, Karbala.
2 of 188

Islam Before the Crusades - Battle of Manzikert, 1

  • Acts of aggression by Seljuks made the Byzantine Emperor respond: the Battle of Manzikert.
  • Disastrous failure for the Byzantines.
  • Seljuks took lands that included almost all of Asia Minor from the Byzantines, showed no sign of slowing towards the Byzantine capital Constantinople.
  • Seljuks began to obstruct Christians on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

The threat posed by the Seljuks caused Emperor Alexius to ask for help from the Pope; this resulted in the call to crusade in 1095.

3 of 188

A Bitter Rivalry..


  • Dominant apart from in Egypt.
  • BUT - Not just Sunni Muslims living in those territories. Often there were some Shi'ias and also some Chrsitians.


  • Controlled several areas later taken by the Crusaders such as Tyre and Acre.
  • Had controlled Jerusalem until 1071 when it was taken by a Turkish general.
  • Took it back in 1098 when the Turks were preoccupied with the arrival of the First Crusade.


  • Prepared to ally with the Crusaders against each other rather than form a united front against the Christians.
4 of 188

Crusader Advantage

  • The situation in the East was of advantage to the Crusaders. They faced a disunited region where individual local eladers could be overcome and were more concerned with fighting each other.
  • Sunni leadership was distracted by troubles closer to home.
  • Muslim leaders didn't recognise the Crusader army as one of conquest + consolidation - thought it was just another Byzantine raid.
5 of 188

Byzantium Before 1095

  • Byzantium dominated the Mediterranean world in the early Middle Ages.
  • Resisted rapid expansion of Islam from 630s onwards.
  • Held off two determined and prolonged attempts to capture Constantinople by Muslim forces.

What was Byzantium?

  • Greek-speaking Roman Empire.
  • Capital - Constantinople.
  • Was a continuation of the Roman Empire; Rome was capital of the West, and fell to the barbarians. East survived as Byzantium.
  • Greatest extent during 500s AD, although it revived in power and influence during the 10th-11th century.
  • At death of Emperor Basil II in 1025 it was the premier poer of Europe + the Middle East.
6 of 188

But Half a Century Later...

  • Byzantium lost control of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks (after Manzikert, 1071).
  • Empire had to fight desperately to resist invasion from the Normans based in Southern Italy.

Why the Dramatic Reversal?

  • Periods of misrule.
  • Military breakdown.
  • Nature of Turkish settlement in Asia Minor.
  • Structural changes in economy and society which made maintenance of the self-contained and centralised Byzantine state more difficult
7 of 188

Alexius Comnenus

A strong leader:

  • Since 1081 the Empire at least had an able and extremely determined ruler: Alexius Comnenus, aided by a number of able family members and colleagues (e.g. Anna Dalessa).

Requesting help:

  • Alexius requested for help for Eastern Christians which was used as part of the justification for Pope Urban II's call to arms in 1095.
  • Doubtful he expected such an overwhelming response.
  • Alexius probably wanted some western mercenaries that he could employ to defend his frontiers against the Turks and other potential invaders.
  • Instead he received a vast army of westerners bound on conquest of the Holy Land, and, by implication, a danger to the territory of Byzantium itself.
8 of 188

Urban II + the Preaching of the First Crusade (1)

Alexius' Appeal:

  • Appealed to the pope to encourage westerners to help defend the Eastern Church against the Turks.
  • Probably expected a steady stream of mercenaries, not crusader army.
  • Holy war in the mind of Urban before? A convenient appeal?

Council of Piacenza:

  • First week of March 1095.
  • Council of bishops.
  • Alexius' appeal arrived during the council.
  • Urban responded by preaching a sermon urging westerners to help.

Preaching Tour:

  • Urban preached across France for a year. Impressive, theatrical.
  • Presided over councils at Clermont (1095), Marmautier (March 1096), Nimes (July 1096).
9 of 188

Urban II + the Preaching of the First Crusade (2)

How else publicised?

  • Preached cross at Clermont, Limoges, Angers, etc.
  • Presided over cross-taking ceremonies at Tours.
  • Celebrated feast of Assumption at shrine to Mary at Le Puy (Adhemar, papal legate, from there).
  • Celebrated feasts of St. Giles and St. Hilary.
  • Wrote to Flanders inviting inhabitants to join + those in Bologna.

What Urban called for:

  • Accounts differ on what he said.
  • War of liberation of Easter Christians + Jerusalem.
  • Unite East + West Churches.
  • Reconquest of Christian territory.
  • Pilgrimage linked with vow and privileges
10 of 188

Becoming a Crusader

Taking Vow:

  • Solemn promise + commitment to God (legally enforceable).
  • Sewing of a cross on clothes as a public sign of commitment.
  • New element in Christian holy war.


  • Becane temporary clergymen: lands, property + family protected by Church.
  • Exempt from legal prosecution apart from under church law.
  • Didn't have to pay taxes, interest or debts when on Crusade.


  • A way of paying off penance (punishment for sins) + avoiding hell. People were cleansed of sins for taking part.
  • Battle for eternal life was very important - religion was in every aspect of life + people lived short and brutal lives.
11 of 188

The People's Crusade (1)

15000 people joined the People's Crusade.

Peter the Hermit:

  • A preacher who had been active in central France.
  • Not attractive - dirty + muddy as he rode on a donkey around country tracks.
  • Eloquent + 'radiated an unusual power'. Reputation was before him which must have contributed to his huge success.
  • Preached around France then headed to Germany en route to the East.

Were the people on the People's Crusade poor?

  • Traditional interpretation that People's Crusade made up of poor peasants + knights, explaining why they were defeated so easily in the East.
  • Modern view: Fewer nobles + mounted knights than the main crusade but not a disorganised rabble - had cohesion, funds + leadership.
  • Leader called Walter Sans-Avior (known as Walter the Penniless) but may have just been his family name.
12 of 188

The People's Crusade (2)

In the East:

  • Some clashed on the way but arrived mostly intact.
  • At Constantinole Peter left to attend audience by Emperor who gave him rich presents + good advice (wait for the other Crusaders).
  • Others were impatient + plundered until Byzantines advised them to cross to Turks' frontier.
  • Raided in Turkish territory and one got trapped. Main army set off to rescue but Turks destroyed them on 21 October 1096.
  • Only a few survived, including Peter.


  • Accomplished nothing for Christianity.
  • Unfavourable impression of Christians for the Byzantines - Distrust built, leading the Byzantines to look skeptically on future Crusading armies.
  • Peter accompanied the First Crusade to Jerusalem.
13 of 188

Other Armies in 1096

There were other contingents from Germany. They didn't reach Constantinople.

  • Behaved like barbarians: looting and ravaging Hungary before being slaughtered.
  • Slaughtered German Jews (anti-Semitic massacres). Jews were under the protection of the Holy Roman Emperor but Crusaders were inflamed by irresponsible preachers + were looking for wealth. 10000 Jews killed.
  • The argument for this violence was that Jews, enemies of Christ, deserved to be punished. More likely motive was greed.
  • Another argument: Early crusaders did not have an effective image of their enemy (Muslims) so Jews provided a convenient substitute.
14 of 188

The First Crusade in Constantinople (1)

Eastern arrival:

  • Main armies arrived between November 1096 and May 1097.
  • Discipline problems in such large forces + language barriers.
  • Questions over leadership - Adhemar spiritual but no clear secular.

Alexius' worries:

  • Large force: 300000 - 700000.
  • People's Crusade caused a lot of trouble.
  • Size + strength of force was enormous - could turn on Constantinople.
  • Bohemond - an old enemy of the Byzantines.
  • Wanted to make an agreement about conquered lands.


  • Quarter troops outside the city in suburbs.
  • Lavish rich gifts on leaders.
  • Receive them in court.
  • Ask them to swear an oath.
15 of 188

The First Crusade in Constantinople (2)

The Oath - allegiance and fealty:

  • Return captured lands to Byzantium that had previously belonged to them.
  • Obey Alexius as overlord.

Crusader response:

  • Not all agreed.
  • Godfrey did, Hugh of Vermandois + Robert of Normandy also agreed.
  • Bohemond did as he was determined to make a good impression.
  • Raymond was the most stubborn.
16 of 188

The First Crusade in Constantinople (3)

Raymond's refusal:

  • Claimed the oath of fealty wasn't compatible with his crusading vow to serve God (and probably didn't want to lose face in his demand to be crusade leader).
  • Much negotiation (helped by Adhemar) including a threat to withdraw supplies.
  • Took a much less binding oath to maintain Emperor's life + honour.

Oath's effect:

  • Crusade off to an awkward start.
  • Westerners relied on Greeks for supplies + expected full military support.
  • Atmosphere of distrust which increased as the Crusade progressed.
17 of 188

About Nicaea

  • Captured by the Seljuks in 1081.
  • The capital of Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arslan.
  • Godfrey + Normans left Constantinople with Nicaea as the first objective in April 1097.
  • A famous city as the site of some early church councils.
  • Controlled the main route through East.
  • The town contained Seljuk treasure + Kilij Arslan's family (he was away fighting the Danishmends).
18 of 188

The Siege of Nicaea

  • Siege began May 1097 until June 1097.
  • Kilij Arslan returned but his entrance to the city was blocked.
  • He was defeated in battle 21 May 1097.
  • City could not be taken as it could still get supplies from the lake it sat on.
  • Byzantines joined the force in mid-June.
  • Alexius setn ships overland - blockaded the lake.
  • City soon taken into Byzantine hands.

Consequences of Nicaea:

  • Alexius wouldn't let crusaders into Nicaea to plunder at it was now Byzantine territory.
  • Rich presents given but Crusaders were disappointed and trust declined further.

The Crusaders left Nicaea on 26 June in 2 sections:

  • Normans: Bohemond as leader, with Flemings + a Byzantine contingent.
19 of 188

Battle of Dorylaeum: 29 June 1097

  • The first section met Kilij Arslan at Dorylaeum.
  • Turks attacked from all sides. Had lighter equipment + greater mobility so kept out of the way of the heavily armoured knights? Poured a continuous rain of arrows.
  • Bohemond held ranks together too tightly for Turks to break them.
  • Turks surprised as the second section arrived under Godfrey and Raymond.
  • Adhemar performed a successful outflanking manoeuvre.
  • Sultan + army fled. Turkish encampment fell to the Crusaders.


  • Sultan was defeated for the time being.
  • The route was open to Anatolia and the East.
20 of 188

Journey Across Anatolia


  • Took 4 months in the heat of summer.
  • Food and water shortage - Turks destroyed countryside in retreat.
  • Crusaders didn't know terrain or trust guides (Byzantines).
  • No clear leader - council of princes slow and not always unanimous in decisions.

The journey:

  • Avoided shorter routes as it took them through central region of Turkish power.
  • Detoured through south-east Anatolia.
  • At Heradea had to fight through combined forces of Dansihmends and Emir of Cappadocia.
  • At Tyana forces split again.
21 of 188

Indirect Route

  • North-east to Caesarea (main city of Danishmends) then cross a mountain range to Marash.
  • Most took this route.


  • Could expect help from Armenian Christians who had been driven from their homes by Byzantines. Had been forced further south by Turks.
  • Would probably support fellow Christians.

Journey to Antioch:

  • Entered Caesarea at the end of September 1097.
  • Rested at Marash to a welcome from Armenians.
  • Arrived at walls of Antioch - October 1097.
22 of 188

Direct Route

  • Through Cilician gates (steep narrow pass through mountains) then down to Tarsus, over Armenian range to Syria.
  • Tancred, Baldwin of Boulogne + Baldwin of Bouroq took this route.


  • Raided areas of Cilicia + captured Tarsus + Adana.
  • Had to surrender them to Baldwin's larger forces.

Baldwin of Boulogne:

  • Headed further East towards Edessa.
  • Was made heir to the county by welcoming Armenians but soon sidelined them and set up the first Crusader state by March 1098.
  • It was held for 46 years and was a fertile region so could provide resources to other Crusader States + was good for the economy.
23 of 188


  • Controlled by Christian Armenians who welcomed the Crusaders' support against the Muslims who surrounded them. Baldwin was seen as a liberator.
  • Thoros' (ruler) position was shaky, having once served the Byzantines. Greek Orthodox by religion so unpopular with his people who belonged to the Armenian Church.
  • He invited Baldwin to Edessa hoping to free himself from Turkish overlordship.

Baldwin arrives - February 1098:

  • Only 80 knights.
  • Adopted at Thoros' son - now heir and co-ruler.
  • March 1098: Thoros lynched by a conspiracy (Baldwin may have helped).
  • 10 March 1098: Baldwin became sole ruler of Edessa.

The importance of Edessa:

  • Acted as a north-east buffer protecting the other Crusader States to the Muslims
24 of 188

Antioch (1)

Main army reached Antioch, northern Syria, in June 1097.

Strongly defended:

  • Powerful ring of walls.
  • Formidable citadel high above the main settlement.
  • Well provisioned.
  • Mountains + rivers provided a barrier - attackers would have to go through river.
25 of 188

Antioch (2) - Problems

The siege lasted 8 months through a bitterly cold winter. Endured terrible conditions. Problems included:

  • City too big to blockade effectively so defenders still received supplies.
  • Crusaders ran short of food + were forced to mount increasingly lengthy foraging expeditions.
  • Horses died, cost of food inflated.
  • Cold + rainy - tents + equipment rotted.

Franks explained the problems by thinking they had incurred God's disfavour.

  • Adhemar proclaimed a 3 day fast, banned sex, gambling and swearing in an attempt to pull the expedition together and regain God's support.
  • But the siege dragged on.
26 of 188

Antioch (3) - A Breakthrough...

  • June 1098 - Bohemond plotted with a renegade Armenian to betray Antioch to the Crusaders.
  • He tried to persuade other leaders to let him keep Antioch if he could help it to fall. Raymond was unhappy at breaking his oath.
  • Military situation worsened - Muslims of Mosul (Iraq) marched to relieve the siege.
  • Bohemond revealed his plan to fellow leaders. In spite of Raymond's objects, they urged him to act.

3 June 1098:

  • A rope was lowered from the walls of Antioch and the Crusaders swarmed in.
  • Terrible massacre and much booty taken but defenders withdrew to the citadel.
  • Only the outer shell of Antioch had been taken.
27 of 188

Antioch (4) - DISASTER!

  • Morale reached its lowest as Crusaders became besieged - forces from Mosul arrived outside, trapping Crusaders in.
  • Extreme hardship: famine, disease, etc. for 26 days.
  • Desertion - Stephen of Blois.

Stephen of Blois - More damage:

  • On Stephen's retreat across Asia Minor he met Alexius who was coming to the aid of the Crusaders.
  • He convinced him they were doomed so the Greeks turned back.
  • Further consequence: Bohemond claimed the Byzantines had broken their agreement to provide military support, so the oath was now invalid.
28 of 188

Antioch (5) - A Miracle?

  • A pilgrim claimed to have a vision in which St. Andrew revealed the location of the Holy Lance (which had pierced Christ's side in the crucifixion).
  • St. Andrew promised that whoever carried it in battle would triumph.

14 June 1098:

  • Relic was discovered - religious fervour and morale transformed.
  • Christians faced their enemy with a new determination.

28 June 1098:

  • Franks lined up outside the city and after performing some complex military manoeuvres they forced the Muslims to flee. Seeing no relief, the defenders of the citadel surrendered and Antioch was taken.
  • Bohemond able to establish his principality, breaking his oath.
  • Greeks intended to re-establish their influence in the area so were obviously frustrated and led to poor relations in the future between Antioch and Byzantium.
29 of 188

Jerusalem (1)

December 1098:

  • Crusaders besieged Ma'arrat an Nu'man.
  • Supplies became a problem again + there were reports of cannibalism.
  • First months of 1099 marked by quarrels between leaders and a pressure from army who wanted to press on to Jerusalem to fulfil their vows to God.

7 June 1099:

  • Franks reached Jerusalem.
  • Controlled by Egyptian Shi'ias.
  • Little progress in early stages of the siege.
  • Spiritual strength renewed by the fact they were so close to their goal.
  • Fast proclaimed for 8 July and barefoot, carrying relics, the bishops + clergy led army to Mount of Olives and begged for God's help.
30 of 188

Jerusalem (2)

15 July 1099:

  • An attack was prepared and on 15 July Godfrey's men filled the moat and crossed onto the ramparts, entering the city.
  • Jerusalem fell and the accumulated tensions + toil of the march resulted in an appalling massacre of the Muslim + Jewish defenders. Religious fervour and extreme brutality.

Result and consequences:

  • 3 weeks later an Egyptian force was defeated at Ascalon and the success of the First Crusade was assured.
  • The capture of Jerusalem was an amazing achievement and the Crusaders believed they must have been blessed by God.
  • Many Crusaders left for home as heroes.
  • Those remaining had to stabilise their new territories + establish a rule of government.
  • Muslim world was shocked + outraged. People lamented the failure of Muslims to act. Seljuk Sultan had been preoccupied and Islam divided
31 of 188

Political & Religious Divisions in the Muslim Worl

Sunni vs. Shia:

  • Sunni Orthodox controlled Asia Minor and the Shi'is ruled Egypt through the Fatamid dynasty.
  • Sunni caliph based in Baghdad, Shi'ia caliph based in Cairo.
  • Bitter rivalry and division - prepared to ally with the Crusaders against one another rather than form a common front against the Christians.
  • Greater Syria a vast war zone fought over by generals + former clients of the Seljuks on one side and Fatamid caliphs on the other.

Ethnic + Religious Diversity:

  • In parts of Syria, immigrant Turkish Sunnis ruled an indigenous Shia population.
  • The Shi'ia Fatamid Caliphate of Egypt, with power in the hands of often non-Arab, Turkish or Armenian viziers, ruled a largely Sunni population.
  • This complexity could make the political situation even more volatile. Crusaders just added one more competing foreign power to the region
32 of 188

Political & Religious Divisions in the Muslim Worl

Political Power Vacuum:

  • Political turmoil in Sunni and Shia territory due to mysterious + unexplained deaths of several important leaders.
  • 1094 - year of death of Caliphs + Commanders.
  • 1092 - Powerful Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah died.
  • By 1097-99 - Power vacuum in Asia Minor + northern Syria. Civil war between heirs of Malik Shah for control of his territories.
  • Consequently Crusaders were confronted with a series of small rival lordships more interested in fighting each other than the Crusaders, who they dramatically underestimated.
  • Seljuk Empire more a loose federation of states often controlled by Turkish military commanders and slave mercenaries who owed allegiance to one or another rival Seljuk prince.
  • Almost every town in Syria seemed to have a different ruler.
  • Religious leadership in Baghdad distracted by conflicts close to home + didn't concern themselves with appeals from far off places like Antioch.
  • This power vacuum made the Muslims less effective against the Crusaders as they lacked the leadership to unite them.
33 of 188

Military Tactics (1) - Crusaders

  • Cautious - inclined to avoid battle to preserve manpower unless it was necessary.

The core of the army was knights:

  • Well protected by chain mail, helmets and shields.
  • Heavily armoured and travelled into battle on heavy warhorses.
  • The most effective tactics were the charge.

Problems with the charge:

  • The necessity for a reasonably fixed target (as it was hard to vary the direction of the charge).
  • Needed relatively flat ground.
  • Timing and close formation were also crucial to the success of a charge.
  • Vital to preserve discipline in the face of Muslim attacks, even after a victorious charge. Arrows stuck in chain mail, horses often main casualties. This slowed down the march of the army.
34 of 188

Military Tactics - Muslims

  • Cavalry based.
  • Lightly armoured.
  • Highly-skilled archers who would repeatedly ride to within 50-80m of Crusaders, release arrows and retreat.
  • Unfamiliar and threatening tactics to Crusaders.
  • Howled and shouted, fired arrows, moved around rapidly.
  • Tried to provoke Crusaders into breaking ranks and clear the way for an attack by the Muslim heavy cavalry.
  • Defence: Crusaders had to stay in tight formation hoping Muslim armies would come close enough to be hit by a charge.
  • Feigned retreat - lure soldiers to their doom. Fall back, spread out so knights lost formation, then outflank and ambush.
  • Would trap small groups rather than facing large, heavy + more disciplined f
35 of 188

Military Tactics - Religious and Medical Men

  • Both had religious men to tend to the warriors' spiritual well being + provide inspiration.
  • Bishops + priests in Frankish forces.
  • Muslim Sufis and experts on the Quran in Muslim armies.
  • People to tend to sick and wounded in both - e.g. Hospitallers for Franks and doctors, surgeons, etc. for Muslims.
36 of 188

Establishment & Consolidation of the Crusader Stat

The 1101 Crusade:

  • Continuation of the First Crusade.
  • Crusaders sent messengers to West urging fellow Christians to join them.
  • Papal letters urged people to join.
  • Motivation: Jerusalem's capture made people believe God was on their side. People went hoping to benefit from the success of the campaign so far.
  • Opportunity for deserters to complete their vows, e.g. Stephen of Blois.
  • 2 armies set off, depleted by Muslim attacks, but reached Jerusalem in spring 1102.
  • Provided large cavalry section at the Battle of Ramla (May 1102).
  • Infantry fought at Jaffa 1102.

1102 Expedition:

  • Didn't achieve much considering size of the army (20-30000).
  • Involvement at battles of Ramla & Jaffa made significant contributions to kingdom's survival. Some stayed as settlers.
37 of 188

Establishment & Consolidation of the Crusader Stat

Issues for the Franks:

  • Only held Jerusalem, Bethlehem + Jaffa in 1100 (easy to attack).
  • Christians few in number.
  • Antioch 450km away (far).
  • Bohemond captured by Muslims in July 1100.
  • Needed local labour to keep economy & food production going.
  • Seljuk Empire on border - vulnerable position.
  • Great distances - Edessa down to Antioch.


  • Bohemond captured by Muslims in 1100.
  • Released when Baldwin of Edessa paid the ransom.
  • Returned August 1103.
  • Bohehomd went to the West to seek support + reinforcements from the Pope & in France + England.
38 of 188

Establishment and Consolidation of the Crusader St


  • Arrived in 1106 to a hero's welcome.
  • Married Constance, daughter of Philip I of France.
  • Established house of Antioch as one of real standing.
  • Contacted Pope Paschal II to raise support.
  • Aimed to invade Byzantium.
  • Spiritual rewards offered - first crusade against Christians.
  • Recruited large army.
  • 1107 - Sailed for Western Greece but was defeated by Byzantines
39 of 188

Establishment & Consolidation of the Crusader Stat

Consequences of Bohemond's attack:

  • Had to sign the Treaty of Devol in 1108.
  • Bohemond became an imperial vassal.
  • Had to relinquish lands in Cilicia.
  • Held Antioch + Edessa on behalf of the Emperor.
  • Aleppo granted in fief if Christians recaptured it.
  • Forced to accept a Greek Orthodox bishop in Antioch.
  • Some of his armies continued to Jerusalem, some settled there.
  • Bohemond returned to Italy and died there in 1112.
  • Tancred (nephew) ruled in Bohemond's absence.
  • Tancred rejected the terms of the Treaty of Devol.
  • Byzantines distracted by problems elsewhere so Antioch ruled free of their influence (for the time being).
40 of 188

Establishment and Consolidation of the Crusader St


  • More stable & effective than Antioch.
  • Took coastal cities - Acre in 1104, Tripoli in 1109, Beirut + Sidon in 1110.
  • Sidon - inhabitants were offered choice of leaving or staying under Frankish rule (local labour such as farmers could be used by Franks).
  • Expanded inland in 1115 with Baldwin I's building of castle Montreal in Transjordan.
  • Controlled region east of River Jordan + Dead Sea, down to Eilat - traders from Damascus to Egypt had to pay taxes to travel through the area.
41 of 188

Rulers of Jerusalem

  • 1) Godfrey of Bouillon: 1099-1100
  • 2) Baldwin of Boulogne: 1100-1118
  • 3) Baldwin of Bourcq: 1118-1131
  • 4) Count Fulk of Anjou: 1131-1143
  • 5) Melisende: 1143-1152
  • 6) Baldwin III: 1143-1163
  • 7) Amalric: 1163-1174
  • 8) Baldwin IV: 1174-1185
  • 9) Baldwin V: 1185-1186
  • 10) Guy of Lusignan: 1186-1192
  • 11) Conrad of Montferrat: 1192
  • 12) Henry II of Champagne: 1192-1197
  • 13) Isabella I: 1192-1205
42 of 188

The Early Decades

  • 1097 - late 1144 was in general a successful time for the Franks.
  • Consolidated achievements of First Crusade.
  • Huge energy & effort required to establish Frankish hold on the Holy Land: almost ceaseless campaigning + marches.
  • Only 4 appeals to the West before 1144, compared to 15+ from 1149-1186: emphasises the Franks' strength in this time and the relative weakness of their enemies.
43 of 188

Muslim-Christian Relations Early Decades

  • Continuing political dissent of the northern Syrian Muslims was of particular advantage to the Crusader States.
  • Muslims posed a significant threat, but the fragmented nature of the danger diluted its menace.
  • Franks was strong enough to impose annual payments of tribute from local emirs, e.g. Aleppo.

Settlers in conflict with each other - sought Muslim allies:

  • 1105 - Tancred of Antioch and Baldwin I had Turkish allies in their struggle with each other.
  • 1114 - Roger of Antioch fought alongside Tughtigin of Damascus + Il-Ghazi of Mardin fighting Bursuq, commander of the Sultan of Baghdad's army.

Alliances contradict ideals of the First Crusade but represent the practicalities of divided Muslim & Christian powers. Such deals were nearly always short-lived.

44 of 188

Battle of the Field of Blood - 1119

  • Frankish expansion around Aleppo provoked deep Muslim anxiety.
  • Il-Ghazi and Tughtigin's forces led an aggressive push to the west.
  • 28 June 1119 - Roger of Antioch's army surrounded near Aleppo and he was killed in battle.
  • Almost all 700 knights and 3000 foot-soldiers were slain or captured.
  • Lot of land lost but death of so many Antiochene nobles caused real criss.
  • Baldwin II marched north + took command of Antioch. Defended Antioch and remarried the widowed to his own men. He preserved it when it was under a moment of extreme pressure
45 of 188


  • Battle of the Field of Blood (1119) was first time jihad imagery used frequently in age of the Crusades.
  • Tughtigin described as 'protector of those who fight the holy war' in 1122.
  • Balak of Aleppo died fighting Franks in 1124 - portrayed as a martyr.
  • In northern Syria, in conjunction with the Muslims' first real success against the Franks, seeds were being sown for the later propaganda campaigns of Nur ad-Din and Saladin
46 of 188

Baldwin I (1100 - 1118)

  • Successful reign: territory of Jerusalem grew + it became more economically stable.
  • Acre taken in 1104.
  • Tripoli came into being in 1109.
  • Beirut + Sidon taken in 1110.
  • Fought almost annual battles with Egyptians, sometimes Damascenes (but they allied with Franks occasionally or stayed neutral).
  • Constructed Montreal castle in 1115 in Transjordan - valuable increase in revenue as traders from Damascus to Egypt had to pay tax to traverse the area.
  • Held his nobles in close control until the issue of succession.
  • Died in April 1118, and Baldwin II took the throne (Baldwin of Edessa, previously Baldwin of Bourcq).
47 of 188

Baldwin II (1118 - 1131)

  • Another successful ruler for Jerusalem.
  • Led many military campaigns and supported Antioch after the Battle of the Field of Blood (1119).
  • His reign marks beginnings of jihad and further territorial expansion.
  • Also had problems of succession - 4 daughters.
  • Married eldest to military leader Fulk.
48 of 188

Baldwin II's Campaigns

  • His reign was characterised by vigorous military endevour.
  • Led 19+ campaigns.
  • 16 months in captivity.
  • Had to ride to Antioch 6 times and was regent from 1119-1126. Had to restore order again in 1130 after death of Bohemond II.
  • October 1124- 5 month siege of Aleppo (only time Crusaders seriously threatened it).
  • Fought and won 2 big battles at A'zaz and Zerdana.
  • Went to Damascus + Ascalon in 1125, and back to Damascus in 1126 with success in all.
  • 1126 - further victories at Rapharia and Egypt.
49 of 188

1127 - Baldwin II

3 issues in 1127 required Baldwin II to make important choices.

  • 1) Encouraged Hugh of Payns, master of the Templars, to go to the West for papal endorsement for the order + raise money and men for them.
  • 2) Also instructed Hugh to recruit men from Europe for another Crusade to expand Christian territory, especially Damascus. Demonstrates Baldwin's confidence + belief Christians could conquer major Muslim city.
  • People did go on Crusade, though little evidence.
  • 3) Wife dead, had 4 daughters (issue of succession).
  • Melisende married to military leader Fulk, who assisted Hugh in Crusade in 1129 (but achieved little success).
  • First child born in 1130 - Baldwin
50 of 188

King Fulk (1131 - 1143)

  • Early years of rule marked by a struggle for supremacy betwen newly arrived Angevins and native Levantine nobles.
  • Franks took action to contain threat from Egyptian Ascalon.
  • Considerable pressure on Antioch from Christians & Muslims.
  • Fulk attempted to bring his own men into positons of influence at the expense of native nobility - generated serious antagonism.
51 of 188

Problems at Antioch

  • Near civil war caused by actions of Alice, Bohemond II's widow, who wanted to rule in her own right until her infant daughter Constance came of age.
  • Baldwin II (1130), Fulk (1133 + 1135) had to march to Antioch to answer calls from disaffected nobles who wanted Alice to remarry or be replaced.
  • Finally, Raymond of Poitiers married Constance in 1136 to bring some stability.
  • In 1137-38 and 1142-43 John Comnenus and Byzantine army came to Antioch, furious that as overlord he hadn't been involved in choosing Constance's husband + opportunity to influence area missed.
  • He demanded city submitted to him in 1137. Raymond swore homage + acknowledged overlordship.
  • 1138 - Tried to take Shaizar (if succeeded Franks would get that and Byzantines would have Antioch). Didn't get it, but John still wanted Antioch.
  • John left after an anti-Byzantine riot and was distracted by unrest elsewhere.
  • 1142 - John threatens Antioch again.
  • Antiochenes manage to delay a full-scale assault.
  • Good fortune: Byzantines withdrew to Cilicia for winter
52 of 188

Edessa Falls - 1144

  • Fulk died in 1143 and the throne passed to their son - Baldwin III but Melisende governed on hos behalf as he had not come of age.
  • She ordered a relief force to Edessa when she heard it had fallen.
  • Undoubtedly played a prominent part in ruling Jerusalem during the remainder of Fulk's reign.
53 of 188

Melisende and Baldwin III (1)

Melisende's Power:

  • When Baldwin came of age (15) in 1145 she continued to govern.
  • June 1148 - leaders of Second Crusade met both Baldwin and Melisende in the great council at Palmarea that decided to attack Damascus.
  • Was the leading partner, much to Baldwin's displeasure.
  • Overcame her inability to participate in warfare by her formidable political skills + position as carrier of blood-line.
  • Involved in high-level politics for almost 20 years.
  • Strength to hold onto the crown for 7 years after Baldwin III reached maturity - the excuse to remove Melisende could have been brought into play very quickly had there been doubts to her abilities (evidence of her strength as a leader).
54 of 188

Melisende and Baldwin III 2 - Baldwin Fights Back

  • Aged 22, Baldwin gathered enough backers (partly due to effective military exploits in northern Syria and the Harran) in 1152 to try and force his mother to step down.
  • Polarised kingdom's nobility - reached point of armed conflict when Baldwin besieged Melisende in citadel of Jerusalem and forced her to surrender her lands and abstain from politics.
  • Melisende continued to exert considerable influence until her death in 1161, but Baldwin III was now in control.
55 of 188

The Military Orders

This was one of the most important events of Baldwin II's reign. Military orders had a long-lasting impact on the Crusades in the Holy Land, the Crusader states and later Crusades in Europe.

Two main orders:

  • The Templars.
  • The Hospitallers (Knights of St. John).
56 of 188

The Templars (1)

Who's idea?

  • Apparently Hugh of Payns, a knight from Champagne (France).
  • Order set up in 1119.
  • Significant time: Easter 1119 300 pilgrims massacred near River Jordan and defeat at the Field of Blood in June 1119.

What idea?

  • It would be pleasing to God if a monk's way of life was combined with fighting against heathen - a new knightly ideal.
  • Step forward from Holy War - purpose to defend Holy Land and destroy evil.

What next?

  • 1119 - Hugh + 8 companions swore to Patriarch Gormund (Archbishop of Jerusalem) to be obedient, poor, chaste.
  • Additional vow to offer help & protection on dangerous road from Jaffa to Jerusalem
57 of 188

The Templars (2)

What were they known as?

  • Templars: Baldwin II granted them rooms in royal palace called 'Templus Salomnis'.
  • At first they lived there in poverty like an ordinary monk community.

How and why did they develop?

  • Bernard of Clairvaux (one of the best known churchmen in the 12th century + a Cistercian monk) became interested in them.
  • Helped them approve a monastic rule at Council of Troyes in 1128.
  • Patriarch Stephen of Jerusalem added elements in 1130, giving rule its final form.
  • Contained key monastic principles of poverty, chastity, obedience.
  • Also practical information on conduct of knights in battle, appropriate levels of equipment + order hierarchy.
  • Bernard gave Templars international status by writing a rule + a tract praising them.
  • Fulk stayed with them in 1120.
58 of 188

The Templars (3)

Their costume:

  • From 1130 began to wear a white tunic.
  • Probably modelled on Cistercians, another order that wore white.
  • When Eugenius III was Pope (1145-53) a red cross was added to distinguish the two orders.

How organised?

  • Tightly under the direction of a master.
  • 3 classes - knights, a sergeant who served them and chaplains.
  • During the 12th century, they freed themselves from Patriarch's authority.
59 of 188

The Templars (4)

What privileges?

  • Didn't pay tithes (taxes on Churchland).
  • After 1179 tenants did (followed by complaints from bishops at Third Lateran Council).
  • When wanting chaplains consecrated had to approach local bishop - were granted exemption from diocese's authority so didn't have to do this.
  • Bishop couldn't excommunicate them or place interdict on their churches/houses.
  • Made them independent + powerful.
  • Papal support - so virtually untouchable.
60 of 188

The Templars (5)

Why so valuable?

  • Only authority to have a standing army always ready to fight.
  • Gained many recruits (Bernard's enthusiastic advocacy - contrasted Templar values e.g. inner faith, trust in God, bravery + commitment to those of secular knights.
  • Manpower big problem in East - army helped with that.
61 of 188

The Templars (6)

The Templars, though useful, also caused a number of problems:

  • The privileged position meant they established a state within a state - a rival to King + Church.
  • John of Salisbury felt their knightly + clerical duties were incompatible.
  • Pursued own policies + rights of exemption meant they always threatened to undermine the customary structure of authority.
  • Took over castles even though not within the feudal system as they couldn't hold anything from anyone. Applied to Templars after 1139, Knights of St. John after 1186 and Teutonic Knights after 1220.
  • In 1153 a group of Templars broke into Muslim Ascalon ahead of Crusaders + refused them entry as they wanted the booty for themselves.
  • Position enhanced by the fact they received gifts of land from Western Europe - anyone granting land, money or goods would receive a Papal Indulgence. King of Aragon, Alfonso I, donated his entire kingdom.
  • Developed into a financial organisation of great importance.
62 of 188

The Templars (7)

Territory where?

  • Given more territory as financial strength grew.
  • First castle: Baghras in Antioch, a strategic region that controlled the Belen Pass, a main route to Syria.
  • Acquired castles at Gaza (1149-50), Safed (before 1168) and Toron (before 1172).
  • Some areas they ruled independently.
63 of 188

The Hospitallers (1)

Earliest Origins...

  • 1080: Italian merchants founded a Christian hostel in Jerusalem.
  • Near Benedictine monastery of St. Maria Latina in Jerusalem.
  • Dedicated to St. John the Baptist.
  • Originally a community of laymen who left control of the monastery.
  • Remained under Patriarch's control.
  • Godfrey early supporter + pilgrims now entering Jerusalem added to it.


  • Originally purely charitable - providing Christian care for sick pilgrims.
  • In 1169 number of bed 1000.
  • This could be increased in crisis as Hospitallers would give up their beds.
  • All admitted except lepers, regardless of origin, sex or status.
  • Possibly higher quality care than in the West.
64 of 188

The Hospitallers (2)

Additional Responsibility...

  • 1136 - accepted responsibility for land settlement + frontier defence.
  • Received the castle + territory of Beth Gibelin near Ascalon (granted by Fulk).
  • From 1140s a wave of take-overs in Tripoli: 1144 - control of fortress at Krak des Chevaliers.
  • At first paid knights, who had to protect pilgrims on roads, carried out military functions (so not Hospitallers).
  • Before 1153 Hospitallers based on Augustinian rule (poverty, chastity and obedience). Recognised by grant of a papal privilege in 1154. No knights in early stages.
65 of 188

The Hospitallers (3)

Military Capacity:

  • Early as 1168 - promise king of Jerusalem 500 knights + 500 Turcopoles (light cavalry).
  • Gradual development from original charitable function that was completed in 1179 when Pope transferred tasks previously carried out by paid knights to the Hospitallers.
  • Became an exclusively knightly order to war against infidel.
  • Played major role in political divisions in 1180s.


  • Not settled until 1259.
  • Red tunic with a while 8 pointed cross.
66 of 188

Outremer: 1130s & 1140s - Lack of Stability! (1)


  • Succeeded Baldwin II in August 1131.
  • Early years of rule saw a struggle between newly arrived nobles from Anjou (where Fulk came from) and the native nobles of the Levant.
  • Jerusalem also had to contain a threat from Muslim controlled territories such as Ascalon.


  • State of near civil war caused by the actions of Alice, widow of Bohemond II of Antioch.
  • Alice wanted to rule in her own right at least until their infant daughter Constance came of age.
  • No less than 3 occasions first Baldwin II (in 1130) then Fulk (1133 & 1135) had to answer calls from disaffected nobles who wanted Alice to marry again or be forced from power.
  • Raymon of Poitiers married Constance in 1136 to bring some stability to the situation.
67 of 188

Outremer: 1130s & 1140s - Lack of Stability! (2)


  • Raymond had to contend with John Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor, from 1137-1138 and 1142-1143. Reflects lack of unity between Byzantines + Franks.
  • Emperor angry that he as overlord of Antioch hadn't been involved in choosing Constance's husband - missed opportunity for Byzantium to gain influence in the area.
  • 1137 - John arrived at Antioch and compelled Raymond to swear homage to him and acknowledge him as overlord (claimed ancient rights to Antioch existing before the First Crusade).
  • They agreed that if Franks + Byzantines regained Aleppo + Shaizar then Byzantines would have Antioch and Franks would have other 2 instead.
  • Failed to conquer them but John tried to compel Raymond to hand back Antioch anyway. Anti-Byzantine revolt broke out forcing John to leave.
  • 1142 - John returned, but died in a hunting accident before the full-scale assault that he'd planned.
  • This meant Antioch was occupied with its own concerns as Zengi threatened Outremer.
68 of 188

Zengi's Rise (1)

During the 1130s, Zengi (atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo) became the most powerful challenger yet  to the Christians. Ruthless personality who inflicted terror and cruelty, both on his own army and his enemies. Feared.

Building up Power:

  • Zengi spent many years building up power in the Muslim world + raiding Frankish lands.
  • 1127 - Ruler of Aleppo, 1128 - Ruler of Mosul.
  • Preached jihad against Franks from 1127.
  • Appointed by Caliph of Baghdad.
  • Chief objective was the Muslim state of Damascus.
  • Unsuccessful in attempts to conquer Damascus in 1130 and 1135.
  • Caught up in a long-lasting succession dispute in Iraq, which followed the death of the Sultan, Mahmud, in 1131
69 of 188

Zengi's Rise (2)


  • Recovered and began an aggressive policy against Franks, invading Galilee which Fulk found difficult to put down.
  • 3 years later Damascenes launched a campaign against Tripoli, during which the Count of Tripoli died and his son, Raymond II, succeeded him.
70 of 188

Zengi's Rise (3)

Zengi and Damascus:

  • Events not to his liking so he moved from Iraq to Syria to deal with Damascus.
  • 1137 - besieged Homs (city under control of Muslim ruler of Damascus) until a Frankish army under Fulk approached.
  • Zengi attacked them at the castle of Montferrand in Tripoli territory where he besieged them until July 1137. Raymond of Tripoli taken prisoner here.
  • Truce - Franks surrendered the castle to Zengi, unaware that a relieving army from Jerusalem, Antioch + Edessa was on the way.
  • Zengi was very aware that an army of Byzantines under John was approaching.
71 of 188

Zengi's Rise (4)

Returning to Damascus:

  • Zengi returned in 1139 to deal with Damasucs, who made an alliance with Jerusalem against him. The citizens feared his brutality + saw that the alliance would relieve Frankish pressure on their agricultural lands at Hauran.
  • 1140 - Damascus helped Franks recapture Banyas, a strategic town that cntrolled road between Galilee and Damascus.
  • If Zengi held the town he would have been able to threaten both Jerusalem + Damascus.
  • As a consequence of the alliance Zengi was forced to retreated + for the next 5 years he was busy in Iraq.
72 of 188

Fall of Edessa - 1144

A Poor Defence:

  • In December 1144 Zengi invaded Edessa.
  • Byzantine Emperor was dead.
  • Neither Melisende or Baldwin III in a position to intervene with affairs of north Syria.
  • The city was inadequately defended. Archbishop Hugh was the only one that defended; short of money.
73 of 188

Fall of Edessa - 1144 (2)

Zengi's Victory:

  • Besieged Edessa, moving fast before other Crusaders could come to aid.
  • Set up a close blockade + dug a complex series of mines to bring down one of the walls. Built wooden towers, dug tunnels + bombarded walls until they collapsed.
  • This allowed him to enter the city which fell on 24 December 1144. 15000 people were slaughtered, including Hugh.
  • Town sacked, churches + monasteries destroyed.
    Ruler Joscelin II fled to Turbessel.
74 of 188

Fall of Edessa - 1144 (3)

Celebration and Jihad:

  • Zengi was celebrated in Muslim poetry, which depicted him as a mujahid (holy fighter) and for the first time jihad became an active force to push towards the ultimate reconquest of Jerusalem.
  • His achievement was rewarded by the Sunni Caliph of Baghdad, with a string of titles, 'The adornment of Islam, the King helped by God, the helper of the believers.'
  • This was despite the fact that Zengi had few associations with men of religion.
75 of 188

Fall of Edessa - 1144 (4)

Frankish Disaster:

  • This was a disaster for Franks - greatest setback they had faced since they conquered Jerusalem.
  • Muslim forces followed up their success to take much of the country east of the River Euphrates.
  • The Edessans sent messengers to Antioch and Jerusalem pleading for help, and this, in turn, resulted in the appeals to Europe that prompted the Second Crusade.
  • City fell mainly due to remote situation + speed of Zengi's attack, but also a lack of support from Byzantines and divided Franks was significant.
76 of 188

Preaching the Second Crusade

Two key figures in the religious call to arms before the Second Crusade:

  • Pope Eugenius III
  • Bernard of Clairvaux

Both made a contribution to the recruitment of the crusade in defence of Outremer.

77 of 188

Pope Eugenius III

  • Issued the Papal Bull calling for Crusade on 1 December 1145 in response to the settlers' requests for help following the fall of Edessa on 24 December 1144.
  • The first bull that has survived calling for a crusade to the Holy Land. The document was clear evidence of Papacy regaining command of Crusading movement. Reinforced the fact that Pope was head of Christendom politically + spiritually.
  • The formed basis of crusading appeals in future. Set down in writing indulgences, remission of sins + conditions of service on Crusade.
  • Addressed to King Louis VII of France. Intended to be read out at great assembles of King + nobles when they gathered to take the cross.
  • Vezelay Easter Sunday (31 March 1146) - Theatrically organised and coincided with major festivals. Came prepared to be stirred into the religious frenzy by preachers, e.g. Bernard.
78 of 188

What did the Papal Bull Say?

It was known as the Quantum Praedecessores from its starting words, designed to appeal to as wide an audience as possible.

Key themes:

  • Drawing a historical link between current pope and Urban, emphasising the legitimacy of the Crusade (Urban mentioned 3 times - repetition).
  • Linking new Crusade with the divinely inspired success of First Crusade.
  • The sacrifice of those who lost lives in service of God - referring to fathers & sons (strong theological background + appeal to the bravery of next generation of crusaders). Links past and present - efforts of fathers on First Crusade wanted if sons didn't answer this call to Crusade.
  • Fight against infidel + Muslim outrages committed against Christians in the East.
  • Defence of the Eastern Church.
  • Privileges available - remission of punishment for sins, legal protection for families + property, interest on debts suspended.
  • The necessity for morally upright behaviour and the seeking of divine, not secular, rewards.
79 of 188

Similarities to the First Crusade Preaching

  • Privileges: Remission of sins + legal protection.
  • Fighting the Infidel.
  • Propaganda: Muslim atrocities in the East. Threat to Christianity presented as very grave.
  • Dramatic Speeches: Urban II's at Clermont and Bernard's charismatic preaching.
  • Servicing God: Fighting for God and Christianity. Idea of Holy war.
  • Anti-Semitic Preaching: Rogue preaching against Jews resulting in Jewish massacres.
80 of 188

Differences to the First Crusade Preaching

  • Fathers and Sons: Second Crusade talks about the bravery of Fathers in First Crusade + the responsibility of the sons to continue with it - Fathers' work for nothing if sons didn't help.
  • References to First Crusade: Second Crusade made many references to the divinely inspired success of the First Crusade, linking past with the present.
  • Urban II: Mentioned at least 3 times in Eugenius' Papal Bull.
  • Preaching by Bernard: The Crusade was preached by an abbot rather than the pop himself. Urban preached the First Crusade.
  • Objective: First - armed pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Second - a military expedition with a strategic objective (Edessa).
  • More tightly controlled: The Second Crusade's preaching was more tightly controlled than the First Crusade in order to try and prevent anti-Semitic preaching and other People's Crusades.
  • Linked with religious festivals: Second Crusade preaching often organised to coincide with religious festivals like Easter on 31 March 1146 at Vezelay (may also have been the case with First Crusade).
  • Other forms of recruitment: Popular songs and visual imagery.
81 of 188

Fathers and Sons

  • Family tradition - particularly in the military.
  • Links First and Second Crusade: Fathers went on First, sons to go on Second - had to live up to their fathers and the success of the fathers would mean nothing if the sons didn't act.
  • Security for family (the reference to privileges).
  • Religious reference - God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Links the idea of sacrifice in Holy War to God's sacrifice (Jesus' death).
  • Bible story 'Mattathias of the Maccabees' shows fathers and sons working together in justified Christian violence (mentioned in the bull).
  • Family much more important and central to people's economic and social lives back then.
  • Inheritance - legal inheritance and the idea of legalities.
82 of 188

Who was Bernard of Clairvaux?

  • Pope Eugenius delegated responsibility for recruitment to him. he was an abbot - led a monastery.
  • Widely described as 'the greatest orator of the age'.
  • Man of astonishing charisma who achieved amazing results of Eugenius.
  • During the recruitment, there was careful control over official preachers and the circulation of official letters.
83 of 188

Bernard's Preaching

  • Intensive 7-month journey around the Low Countries (North France, Holland, Belgium, etc.) and the Rhineland.
  • Preached about the need for personal salvation and the great opportunity offered by God to a 'lucky generation'.
  • The atmosphere at preaching rallies could become highly charged, with widespread reports of miracles happening.
  • Many thousands are said to have responded to Bernard's appeals.

Why were official preachers carefully controlled?

  • Stop anti-Semitic preaching.
  • Stop unofficial incorrect preaching.
  • Prevent events like the People's Crusade happening again. Avoid the frenzied explosion of religious passion like Peter the Hermit which led to the massacre of 1000s of Jews.
84 of 188

Anti-Semitic Preaching

  • Once again, unofficial preachers in northern Germany spread messages of hatred against the Jews.
  • Temporarily diverted the attention of Bernard, who objected to the Crusade being preached against Jews - the Bible forbade the killing of Jews in case one day they might be converted.
  • The preacher, Ralph (Rudolph), did not the proper authorisation to preach.
  • Killings were not as bad as before the First Crusade.
  • King Conrad was responsible for the anti-Semitic preachers and was supposed to control them + prevent massacres of Jews.
85 of 188

Other Forms of Recruitment

Popular songs:

  • Thee circulate widely.
  • Musical entertainment very popular (not many alternatives).

Visual imagery:

  • There were crusading windows in churches, such as that at the abbey of Saint-Denis in Paris.
  • Provided a visual depiction of the triumph of the First Crusade + Louis VII's involvement in the Second Crusade.
86 of 188

The Armies & Their Motivations

The Armies:

  • Louis VII's and Conrad's armies were joined in the East by contingents from Southern France + Northern Italy who had sailed to the Holy Land rather than travelling overland, and by a group of north European crusaders who sailed around the Iberian peninsula via Lisbon.


  • Privileges (legal + spiritual).
  • Living up to their fathers' reputations (family traditions).
  • Remission of sins (indulgences).
  • Religious - fighting for God and defending the Church against the infidel.
  • Regain Christian territory (Edessa).
87 of 188

Potential Problems in 1147

  • Over-confidence after the success of the First Crusade.
  • The possible reluctance of Conrad.
  • Poor relations with Byzantines - Sicilian enemies, Manuel didn't welcomely Crusade.
  • Germans were enemies of Sicilians - divisions within armies.
  • Fragmented army - different national groups coming different ways (e.g. sailing, overland) so might not consolidate well + hard to organise.
  • The goal of Edessa not as potent as that of Jerusalem.
88 of 188

Preparations for the Second Crusade (1)

  • French Crusaders had to raise money + men as well as resolving diplomatic issues.
  • Diplomatic - Route they would take to the East.
  • Offered transport by sea by King Roger II of Sicily but were unable to accept as Germans were enemies of the Sicilians, as were the Byzantines.
  • Followed route of First Crusade - thought it would bring good fortune
89 of 188

Preparations for the Second Crusade (2)


  • It was important for the Crusaders to be accommodating towards Byzantines as Emperor Manuel did not welcome the crusade as Alexius had done.
  • Manuel had not invited the crusaders to his lands + he was worried about the French's relationship with the old enemies of Byzantium - Sicilians.
  • Manuel tried to compel the Pope to guarantee the good behaviour of the Crusaders + to persuade them to swear an oath of fealty to him.
  • He also fortified the walls of Constantinople.
90 of 188

Preparations for the Second Crusade (3)

Problems with Manuel's Attitude:

  • Didn't want the Crusaders there so wouldn't provide the aid in battle, supplies + guides that Alexius had done. These were valuable in the First Crusade.
  • Could affect the rout the Crusaders took and make their journey more difficult.
  • Affect relations between French + Sicilians due to poor Sicilian-Byzantine relations.
  • Potential enemy if Crusaders behaved badly.
  • Wanted them to move on from Constantinople quickly (rushed, no rest).
91 of 188

Preparations for the Second Crusade (4)

Final Preparations:

  • Louis held a great public ceremony at the Church of St. Denis on 11 June 1147.
  • In presence of Eugenius Louis prostrated himself at the altar + asked for the Saint's permission to Crusade.
  • He kissed the relics of St. Denis and took the oriflamme (banner of Charlemagne) from the altar and was given the pilgrim's scrip (wallet) by the Pope.
  • The reinforced connection between Saint-Denis + French ruling dynasty and confirmed the pope's position as head of the crusading movement
92 of 188

Journey to the East - German Army

  • Started before the French and travelled through Hungary to Constantinople.
  • Very undisciplined + engaged in a series of small conflicts with Greek troops.
  • Minor losses in these skirmishes.
  • Hit hard by a flash flood as they neared Constantinople. They lose a substantial amount of men + equipment - a big set back.
  • Conrad and Manuel were related by marriage so relations between them were reasonably cordial - but Manuel still ushered Conrad through his territory as quickly as possible.
93 of 188

Journey to the East - French Army (1)

  • Better disciplined and a smaller force at this time, but a faction wanted to attack Constantinople itself, because:
    • Small-scale engagements with Greeks.
    • Ill-feeling created by long-standing differences between Catholic + Byzantine Churches.
    • Antagonism due to recent Byzantine invasions of Antioch (ruled by Queen's uncle, Raymond of Poitiers).
    • The existence of a treaty between Greeks & Muslim Seljuk Turks made the French suspicious.
  • Manuel was also worried by the Crusaders' presence despite Louis rejecting the plot to attack Constantinople.
  • Sicily had recently invaded Corfu + Peloponnesian peninsula (belonging to Byzantium).
  • He tempted the French to cross to Asia Minor with the promise of better markets + was relieved when they left Byzantine territory.
  • Odo of Devil (chaplain to Louis) wrote that Louis was heading to Antioch. Conrad seems to confirm this in a letter he wrote in late February 1148.
94 of 188

Journey to the East - French Army (2)

  • The Crusade was originally intended to campaign in northern Syria. That would have probably made Manuel less helpful to the Crusaders, afraid they would gain control over more of his territory.
  • Manuel's control over Asia Minor was limited and his allies, Seljuks, could move into Byzantine territory + harass the Crusaders from an early stage of their march.
95 of 188

The Crusade in Asia Minor - German Army

  • Unknown to the French, the German army had been crushingly defeated a short time into its march across the East.
  • Caused by: Conrad's enthusiasm, poor discipline within the army and possible treachery of the guides.
  • Conrad's army marched into a trap + was wiped out by the Turks.
  • Conrad managed to escape and joined up with the French army, continuing his Crusade.
96 of 188

The Crusade in Asia Minor - French Army (1)

  • Louis' army marched via Ephesus (Turkey) + along the Meander Valley, scoring a clear victory over the Turks in late December 1147. Presence of a white-clad knight seen as an apparent sign of God's hand in their triumph.
  • French coped with the range of Turkish tactics of feigning + retreat and attacking quickly, mounting a successful cavalry charge.
  • Evidence that the armies of the Second Crusade were capable of military success, especially when managed properly.

Cadmus Mountains:

  • 7 January 1148 - army became too stretched out when traversing the Cadmus mountains.
  • Vanguard (front) lost contact with the rest of the army and upon seeing the disorganisation the Turks struck.
  • The Crusading army lost substantial numbers of men, horses and materials. This broke the spirit and strength of Louis' Crusading army.
  • The survivors regrouped, ensuring that discipline was maintained in the future.
97 of 188

The Crusade in Asia Minor - French Army (2)

Templars Given Control:

  • The Templars were given control of the order of the march and they organised the Crusaders into confraternities - temporary associations bound together by oath.
  • This shows how highly the Crusaders were regarded after a relatively short time.
  • The Crusaders recorded several victories on the rest of the journey and reached Antioch with few further losses (evidence of the Templars' superior leadership to that of Louis).
98 of 188

Religious motivations for going on crusade

 Theory of a 'Just War'

  • Pope Urban II asked them to kill Muslims to recapture Jerusalem- break a commandment.
  • Mathilda of Tuscany helped to develop the idea of 'penitential warfare'- a war fought as penance to make up for sins.
  • A religious excuse for war- a good reason, good intentions and official leader.

2. Impact of Papal Reform Movement 

  • Urban II offered version 1 of indulgence (remissio peccatorum)- like an extreme pilgrimage.
  • Gregorian Reform Movement popularised the idea of copying life of Christ- get to heaven.
  • Crusade offered the best change to copy life of Christ- reduced to a simple lifestyle.

3. Plenary Indulgence

99 of 188

2. Religious motivations for going on crusad

4. The aim of freeing Jerusalem

  • Holy sites- cavalry and Holy Sepulchre, thus, popular pilgrim destination.
  • The rise of Seljuk Turks 1090s made route less safe/tolls for pilgrims.
  • Chronicle accounts of Urban's sermon at Council of Clermont 1095 claim he mentioned 'polluting' influence of Islam.
  • Crusade launched w/religious goal of restoring it is as a pilgrimage destination.

5. Papal support for crusades

  • Pope Urban II created theory behind going on crusade- rewards, launched in 1095 and began preaching tour.
  • Pope's could issue threats- excommunication to those who abandoned/didn't join.
  • Wrote crusade bulls- Eugenius in 2nd crusade used 'Quantum praedecessores' to recruit.
  • Used propaganda: Urban had the idea of the ceremony of granting the cross (visual symbol)
100 of 188

. Religious motivations for going on crusade

The influence of preachers

  • Preachers developed techniques to maximise recruits.
  • Chose the right day (arrive at a holy time), gathering outdoors for max space.
  • Maximise the quality of the audience- ideal was wealthy knights/noblemen.
  • Create a pious mood- Urban ordained a feast and participants earned indulgence.
  • Encourage participation- used miracles to make them want to take crusade vow.
  • Urban had little control over preachers- Peter the Hermit recruited wrong people.
  • 1146- Pope Eugenius ordered preachers at Council of Reims= more control.
  • Key preacher: Bernard of Clairvaux- helped 2nd crusade and did preaching tour of Flanders and Germany.
  • Most notable recruits by Bernard were Louis VII King of France and King of Germany Conrad III.
  • He turned a religiously motivated appeal into an army of knights, led by powerful secular leaders
101 of 188

How did the political situation lead to crusade

Threats to Byzantine Empire

  • BE needed help after surviving collapse of Roman Empire (they were the Eastern half).
  • Was the centre of Greek Orthodox Church; split from Latin Church 1054.
  • Seljuk Turks gradually took control over Asia Minor: 1078 Nicea, 1084 Antioch.
  • Alexius' attempts at negotiation in the 1090s failed.
  • The increased seaborne threat from Muslim pirate attacks worsened affairs= Alexius appeals to Urban for help as he wanted to create a buffer between BE and Turks.
  • Urban claimed crusade was a political need (threat to eastern ally) so-called crusade.

2. Urban's political problems and ambitions for the Papacy

  • Alexius' appeal gave Urban chance to expand his control over western Christendom.
  • German threat: in a weak position in 1088 due to the threat from Henry IV of Germany due to Investiture Controversy which made him fight to regain control of papal territories.
102 of 188

How did political situations lead to crusade

Urban's political problems and ambitions for the papacy (cont.)

  • Crusade was also a chance to restore relations with Alexius and discuss unification as he wanted to unify Greek/Latin Church under his control.

3. Violence and growing disorder in Europe

  •  Internal conflicts in France due to fragmentation of society/weakness of King= castellans were violent towards public to assert authority.
  • Their actions clashed with growing confidence of Church; Cluniac reformers promoted the idea that violence (esp towards churchmen) was unacceptable.
  • Church implemented 2 measures for the Peace Movement: Peace of God (orders for ecclesiastical protection) and Truce of God (order to stop violence on certain days).
  • Crusade gave warriors a holy purpose for violence and Urban hoped the Peace movement would help them direct their violence outside western EU.
103 of 188

How did political situations lead to crusade

4. Defence of the crusader states

  • Crusades of 12th century mainly called to regain/protect Latin states of Outremer.
  • 2nd crusade called 1145- Zengi caused fall of Edessa 1144 and killed 15,000.
  • Pope Eugenius II proclaimed 2nd crusade in Quantum Praedecessores in response.
  • The 1180s- new threat in Latin East from Saladin (began invasion attempts 1170s).
  • 1187 Campaign: a relic of true cross taken, Jerusalem fell to Saladin and Franks forced to leave after payment of 30,000 bezants.
  • Losses led Pope Gregory VIII to call for the defence of Outremer settlements in Audita tremendi and reissued by Pope Celestine III 3 months later after the loss of Jerusalem was confirmed.
104 of 188

What inspired knights to go on crusade?

1. Motivations for an 11th-century knight

  • Knights had great military strength- experienced in warfare/heavily armoured and good tactics.
  • Knights armour protected them against mobile Turks who used bow and arrow (weren't good at hand-to-hand combat like knights).
  • Knights weaknesses: slower than Turks, few in number, limited in siege warfare.
  • Urban promoted crusade as a pilgrimage experience and used core message of fighting barbarians in Holy Land rather than brothers at home.
  • Lordship ties- Lord can inspire their nobility to join them on a crusade.
  • Family connections- Bohemond of Taranto had 8 close relatives with him.
  • Links to Cluny- at heart of papal reform movement, helped them appreciate religious reason.

2. Development of chivalric values 

  • 12th century- concept of chivalry changed, new values turned crusading into a duty
105 of 188

What inspired knights to go on crusade?

3. Protecting Christianity and Pilgrims 

  • Knights needed in Outremer to protect pilgrims due to dangers (1120- Muslim raids from Tyre/Ascalon killed 300 and captured pilgrims).
  • Muslim threat inspired some knights to provide an escort for pilgrims.
  • Templar movement 1120- formal approval in 1129 at Council of Tyres (only had 500 as they had to take monastic vows).
  • Hospitaller's- main duty to run St John Hospital in Jerusalem.
  • Hospitaller's militarised 1130s- helped some knights turn crusading into a permanent location.

4. Settlement in the crusader states and acquisition of wealth

  • Opportunity for land/wealth used by Urban- sermon: East is a rich/fertile land.
  • Crusaders looted in 1st crusade- went alongside their religious motives.
  • Some knights saw crusades as a way to escape their status
  • Bohemond of Taranto went on the 1st crusade as he wanted to be a prince= declared himself Prince of Antioch (breaking the promise to Alexius).
106 of 188

3. What inspired knights to go on crusade?

4. Settlement in the crusader states and acquisition of wealth (cont.)

  • Little evidence that knights were motivated by settlement in Holy Land- during the final siege, only 200 settled out of 1,200 knights.
  • Limited evidence of greed as a motivation as it cost a lot- many returning from Outremer 1099 were in poverty (booty used to fund journey back).
  • Knights who planned to go on a crusade had to gather 5-6x their annual income to fund it.
  • 12th century: popes/Kings more funded, rather than wealth being a motivator it was a barrier to potential crusader knights
107 of 188

1. Leadership of 1st crusade 1095-1192

The 8 Princes and their changing priorities

  • No single commander-in-chief to lead a campaign with a sense of common purpose.

Main priorities

  • Each prince had the same stated aim= capture Jerusalem from Muslims.
  • German: Godfrey of Bouillon became ruler of Jerusalem and Baldwin conquered Edessa but then established himself in northern Syria as Count of Edessa.
  • Northern French: Hugh helped secure possession of Antioch but then abandoned crusade and Robert of Normandy and Robert of Flanders fought to end at Battle of Ascalon, Stephen deserted it soon after the siege of Antioch.
  • Italian Normans: helped capture/secure Antioch but then est. himself 
108 of 188

Leadership of 1st crusade 1095-1192

Divisions: political background of the princes

  • Different relationships with papacy- Raymond led contingent w/Pope's representative Adhemar Le Puy whereas Godfrey had supported Pope's rival Henry IV.
  • Diverse relations w/Alexius I: Italian Normans had led campaigns against him 1080s.
  • Alexius asked them for oath of vassalge to him- caused delay and disuinty.
  • Some wanted to establish own priorities rather than campaign all the way to Jerusalem (e.g. Bohemond of Taranto, Prince of Antioch).

The First priority: getting to the Byzantine Emperor 

  • 4 contingents took different routes: staggered arrival delayed begining of crusade however it prevented any single place in EU having to provision entire crusading army.
109 of 188

3. Leadership of 1st crusade 1095-1192

Early divisions: getting through the Byzantine Empire

  • Alexius forced them to take the oath of vassalage in return for help/supplies.
  • Germans: Godfrey only took oath after Alexius temporarily cut off his supplies and Baldwin avoided oath and was first to abandon crusade.
  • Northern French: Hugh, Robert, Count Robert and Stephen took oath w/o objection.
  • Italian Normans: Bohemond took the oath with no intentions of keeping it, Tancred avoided it.
  • Southern French: refused oath but took the oath to maintain emperor's life and honour.
  • If Kilij Arslan hadn't been pre-occupied he could've defeated each contingent in turn
110 of 188

4. Leadership of the 1st crusade 1095-1192

Baldwin's Conquest of Edessa 1097

  • Sept 1097- Tancred and Baldwin abandoned crusade to go to Antioch through Cilicia.
  • Conflict- Tarsus took by Tancred, Baldwin outnumbered him so replaced T's banner with his own= first sign of crusader in-fighting.
  • Baldwin allowed Tancred's occupation of Cilician towns and looked for territory in Edessa.
  • Baldwin captured Ravanda + Tilbesar= invited by the ruler of Edessa to be his son/heir.
  • Loss of Baldwin to crusading army/unfulfilled vow= only went to Jerusalem after its capture.
  • Edessa was prosperous- Baldwin gave Godfrey 50,000 gold bezants to fund campaign
  • Distracted Kerbogha- stopped Antioch siege for 3 weeks trying to retake Edessa 
111 of 188

5. Leadership of the crusades 1095-1192

Bohemond's seizure of Antioch in 1098

  • Lasted 7 months due to the formidable garrison: but showcased Raymond + Bohemond to be great military leaders.
  • Bohemond responsible for the victory of Lake of Antioch- 1,500 of 5000 garrison killed.
  • Bohemond helped gain access to Antioch by negotiating with an Armenian to sneak in.:
  • Stained army/leader due to loss of life= famine of 1097 (Raymond attacked by Yahgi and banner of Adhemar Le Puy captured which drained morale).
  • Lost 2 leaders who retreated back to Constantinople- 1098 Taticius headed back to BE. Stephen of Blois convinced Alexius to turn back from their plan to aid crusaders in Antioch
112 of 188

5. Leadership of the crusades 1095-1192

Why did the siege of Antioch succeed?

  • Foraging strategy- Raymond + Tancred foraged in surrounding areas to ensure supplies.
  • Finance- Raymond was wealthy so funded building fort to block access to Antioch.
  • Secret negotiations- Bohemond negotiated w/insider so avoided Kerbogha's relief force.
113 of 188

Leadership of the crusades 1095-1192

Stage 2: Securing Antioch

  • Kerbogha abandoned siege of Edessa= 35,000 Turks outside Antioch so Bohemond closed city's gates to prevent crusaders from escaping.
  • Bohemond elected by Council to replace Raymond as Commander.
  • Forced Kerbogha to retreat because: arranged for troops to leave via Bridge Gate, broke army into 7 divisions which tricked him into thinking it wasn't an all-out offensive and he kept back extra troops as a rearguard which held off relief force.

Stage 3: Possession of Antioch

  • Bohemond held onto 2 strategically important places- Palace of Siyan + Tower of Iron Bridge.
  • 6-month long stalemate: when Raymond returned to health he refused to accept Bohemonds leadership (delayed crusade).
  • Crusade faced potential collapse: embassy sent by Raymond to Alexius for help with no reply.
  • Bohemond + Raymond attacked Nu'man and argued over territory.
  • Raymond re-joined crusade and Bohemond remained- loss of another leader
114 of 188

Leadership of the 1st crusade 1095-1192

Emergence of Godfrey of Bouillon as leader + capture of Jerusalem 1099

Fall of Raymond of Toulouse:

  • Began to march south w/Tancred as he wanted to establish a county near Tripoli (joined by Robert of Normandy, Godfrey and Robert of Flanders).
  • Raymond lost control: Caliph of Baghdad coming w/relief force so Raymond gave up on siege in Arqah.
  • Tancred and Robert shifted allegiance to Godfrey- march to Jerusalem.

Siege of Jerusalem

  • Took 5 weeks: crusaders divided efforts between Godfrey's followers.
  • Gained access and garrison withdrew to the citadel and surrendered after Raymond offered protection but they were shortly killed/Muslims massacred.
  • More successful than Antioch: range of strategies (used a siege tower) and were a hardened core (experienced force of united soldiers that endured faltering leadership).
115 of 188

Leadership of 2nd crusade

Personal and political rivalries 

  • Fall of Edessa to Zengi 1144- causes call for crusade to recapture.
  • Louis VII was a leader- an act of penance for burning church or fulfil dead brother's vow?
  • Conrad III lead in order to consolidate power, his rivals were forced to support him when they went on crusade. 
  • Departure date set for May 1147- given 6 months to prepare for the journey to Outremer.
  • Conrad took Hungary route to BE (no sea route due to tensions w/Robert of Sicily).
  • Louis rejected Rogers offer to ship them- journey began with good relations.
  • Louis met Conrad's ambassadors who had made them preparations- good start.

Louis and Conrad's relationship with Manuel I

  • Needed a good relation for military support, supplies, Byzantine loyalty and delay.
  • Alexius had aided 1st crusade: gave Tactics as a guide.
  • But Manuel did provide markets for them to buy goods and made ships available at his ports.
  • Manuel had a treaty with Turks- poor relation may lead to the betrayal of crusaders location.
116 of 188

Leadership of 2nd crusade

  • Conrad had strong relations w/Manuel- strained when Manuel sent the army to prevent them from capturing territory on the route.
  • Louis had bad relations w/Manuel- Louis was associated with Roger of Sicily.
  • Mistrust worsened in 1147 when Roger's admiral attacked BE- Louis forced to swear an oath of homage and promise not to take Byzantine territory in return for provisions.

German Campaign 1147-48

  • Conrad split the army into 2 waves to get to Antioch- one went on an inland route and other on the safer coastal route.
  • Overconfident- Conrad struggled to acquire supplies during the journey and ambushed by Turks at Dorylaeum so retreated to Nicea to wait for French (casualty rate of 17%).
  • Conrad fell ill- rejoined at Council of Acre where they decided the future of the crusade.
  • The only reason for crusader survival was due to Louis handing over leadership to the Templars.
117 of 188

3. Leadership of 2nd crusade

French Campaign 1147-48

  • Louis left for Outremer late 1147- Manuel organised for ships to take them to Antioch.
  • Kept army in formation and use of cavalry charge stopped a Turk raid.
  • Logistics was an issue- short of supplies as Manuel's guides told Turks their movements and they were expensive.
  • Forced to hand over authority to Templars- army survived but rep as leader wained.
  • Manuel's promised fleet was too small to carry entire army- only Louis and his officers could go so 7,000 endured march to Tarsus, reaching Antioch in March 1148.

Failure to consult leaders of crusader states

  • Conrad wrote a letter in 1148 intending to capture Edessa- Outremer leaders hadn't told him it was unrealistic. They re-established a new goal, delaying crusade for 4 months.
  • Antioch plan- Prince Raymond made a military proposal to Louis: help capture Aleppo to neutralise Muslim threat to Antioch (Zengi was Aleppo leader).
  • Louis refused- no hope of Antiochene military support.
  • Jerusalem plan decided at Council of Acre- prep to capture Damascus.
118 of 188

4. Leadership of 2nd crusade

Failure at Damascus 1148 and end of the crusade

  • Started well under King Baldwin III, marched troops through orchards of the West.
  • Conrad III won the river/established a new camp: water source from orchards.
  • Change of plan- attacked weak point in eastern walls as Nur ad-Din mobilised his Mosul and Aleppo troops.
  • Bad decision- no water supply so retreated after 3 days, ending the siege.
  • Conrad returned home and Louis stayed in Jerusalem to fulfil vow of spending a year there.
  • Raymond killed in June 1148 at Battle of Inab- northern crusaders buckled.
  • 1140- King of Jerusalem sold Edessa castles and the county was abandoned
119 of 188

1. Leadership of 3rd crusade


  • Battle of Hattin 1187- Jerusalem was taken by Saladin and Christian control reduced to Tripoli, Acre and Antioch.
  • Emperor Fredrick Barbarossa of Germany joined (had 15,000 men at disposal), King Richard I of England and King Phillip II of France also joined: Richard was wealthy, Phillip had 2000 men.
120 of 188

1. Leadership of 3rd crusade

The significance of the death of Frederick Barbarossa

  • May 1189- Frederick's army marched towards BE for Asia Minor but they were unwelcome as Isaac prevented markets being set up/no supplies.
  • Isaac soon returned to an agreement with Frederick so his troops could cross the Dardanelles/get supplies.
  • Reached Konya but Frederick died in the River Goku after dismounting his horse- some troops left, some sailed to Antioch, some died of disease, others sailed to Antioch/Tripoli.
  • Those who reached Acre in weak condition 1190- further demoralised by the death of Duke Frederick of Swabia in 1191, German campaign was over, his death fractured the army.
121 of 188

2. Leadership of 3rd crusade

The rivalries of Richard I and Phillip II

-1189: met at Nonancourt and swore an oath to protect crusaders together and share spoils of crusade equally and set out for Outremer.

Issue 1: Betrothal of Richard and Alice

  • Richard engaged to Phillip's sister but he wanted to marry Berengaria of Navarre to form an alliance against enemy Raymond (he hid this plan from Phillip until he took crusade vow).
  • Engagement to Berengaria made public- Phillip released Richard from commitment for 10,000 marks.
  • The tension caused conflicts (Richard besieged Messina to collect sister's dowry/fund crusade).
  • Caused delay: Richard anxious to secure succession before crusade so had to wait for Phillip to release him from engagement to Alice. 
122 of 188

3. Leadership of 3rd crusade

Issue 2: rival claims to Jerusalem 

  • Relations further worsened by connections to Jerusalem.
  • 2 rival claimants to the throne: Phillip's cousin Conrad and Guy of Lusignan who was a feudatory of Richard/his wife's cousin).
  • Caused delay in an attempt to retake Jerusalem- making decisions on the ruler of Jerusalem: Guy chose, to be inherited by Conrad. 

Issue 3: EU politics

  • Phillip back in France before crusade ended: extended rivalry back into EU.
  • April 1192- Richard heard of Phillip threatening border of his territory in Normandy and had been openly conspiring against him with his brother.
  • Richard ultimately chose to withdraw rather than besiege Jerusalem in July 1192
123 of 188

4. Leadership of 3rd crusade

Richard's decision to attack Sicily and Cyprus 

  • 1st stop was Sicily to collect sister's dowry from Tancred who refused to pay- Richard attacked Messina to force his hand.
  • Richard had 17,000 troops + 40,000 gold ounces when he left Sicily in 1191: 25 ships lost.
  • Richard invaded Cyprus and Isaac surrendered island- Richard sold it for 100,000 bezants to Templars.
  • Capture of Sicily and Cyprus further delayed the crusade.

Leadership at Acre and Phillip's return to France

  • Phillip arrived first whilst Richard was collecting funds.
  • Phillip provided 6 supply ships and began to construct siege weapons to attack city walls and Richard came with 25 ships, a fleet of 200 and began to construct siege weapons.
  • By July, Muslim garrison surrendered after walls destroyed= month long argument over King of Jerusalem.
  • Richard supported Guy but Phillip supported Conrad- Guy made King.
  • Phillip returned to France and crusade lost another leader- Richard in command
124 of 188

5. Leadership of 3rd crusade

Richard's leadership at Jaffa:

  • Planned to retake territory on Coast of Outremer with organised force; knights separted into 3 divisions/marched in columns.
  • Had infantry to fight off Turks surprise attacks and baggage train to ensure save journey.
  • Good leader- planned march formation and allowed infantry to alternate with baggage train.
  • Reformed formation and when Saladin attacked at Battle of Arsuf- he acted quickly.
  • Turks tried to force Franks into action by attacking Hospitallers but he ordered them to wait for a general attack- launched a full-scale attack causing Saladin to give up; took Jaffa.

Reasons for Richard's decision not to attack Jerusalem 

1st March to Jerusalem:

  • Richard began slow advance there- wanted to secure castles to maintain supply lines.
  • Turned back, refortifying Ascalon as Army Council told him they couldn't win (Military orders told them Saladin would just recapture it, must deal with Saladin first).
125 of 188

6. Leadership of 3rd crusade

The 2nd march to Jerusalem:

  • No more action till May 1192 due to ruler dispute- Guy made King but Conrad had support of French and they tried to seize control of Acre for him.
  • Barons of Jerusalem pressured Richard to revise agreement and replace Guy with Conrad (Guy given Cyprus to rule instead but Conrad still refused to help crusaders).
  • Crusade continued when Conrad was assasinated, replaced with Henry of Champagne.
  • Took Darun in May to block Saladin's link with Egypt; returned to Jerusalem to wait for Henry.
  • French refused committee's proposal that the combined forces strike Saladin's territory in Egypt- began to attack Jerusalem without English support.
  • Richard recommended withdrawal as he couldn't secure Jerusalem.

Final battle: Jaffa

  • Saladin attacked them before Richard's forces could withdraw- Jaffa surrendered but citadel held out- Richard's counterattack retook the city.
  • Richard fell ill so truce with Saladin- they'd keep Tyre/Jaffa, Saladin gets Ascalon and allows pilgrims access to Jerusalem (didn't achieve aim but did regain Christian control of the coast)
126 of 188

1. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192


  • Threat of Turk invasion- increased as Zengi began to consolidate Muslim territory 1127.
  • Battle of Harran 1104- Baldwin II (Count of Edessa) captured so regent Tancred took on his role and Baldwin had to forcefully remove him.
  • Antioch- nearest Frankish neighbour, Count acted as Antioch regent (Count Joscelin helped repel Turkish threat 1119).
  • Increased threat from Zengi in 1143- fate depended on Jerusalem support.
  • Death of King Fulk in 1143 and succession crisis allowed Zengi to capture Edessa.
  • Edessa lost to Outremer after the failure of the second crusade in the 1150s- Beatrice, the wife of Count of Edessa, sold it to Byzantine Empire.


  • Bohemond of Taranto split it into provinces ruled by lords who owed feudal allegiance to the prince.
  • The 1st threat from Byzantines in North who claimed overlordship of principality.
  • The 2nd threat from Turks on the south-eastern frontier who tried to recapture it.
  • 1110-37 Kings of Jerusalem helped Antioch on 15 separate occasions.
127 of 188

3. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192

3. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192


  • Established principality due to Raymond of Toulouse' efforts: controlled communities of Greek orthodox Christians, eastern Christians and Muslims.
  • Despite being vassal state of Jerusalem, tried to maintain independence. 
  • Relations changed when Turkish threat increased- more reliant. E.g. Count Raymond III imprisoned 1164 so King Almaric became regent until a ransom of 80,000 bezants was paid.
  • Reliant on Jerusalem's military orders to defend key possessions (given it in 1144 and 1167).
  • Developed from largely independent into another territory the King/orders had to sustain.

Primacy of Jerusalem 

  • Divided into palatinates- areas ruled by lords who despite being royal vassals, could act without royal assent to defend their territory.
  • Relied on a system of marcher lords who, for power, protected border regions w/military service.
  • Lord's power threatened King's- 1175 10 families controlled 24 powerful fiefs.
  • Skilled application of feudalism helped keep controlled to their primary in Outremer.
128 of 188

4. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192

The absence of natural boundaries to the east

  • Had natural boundaries of Taurus mountain range in North and Lebanese Mountains in East: inadequate as there were huge gaps with large plains between mountains so easy to cross.
  • No fixed political boundary lines- Edessa relied on fortified towns and were vulnerable to attack from Mosul and Aleppo.
  • Antioch relied on Jerusalem then BE to fend of Turk attacks.
  • Tripoli vulnerable to Assasins in Nosairi mountains- Raymond II granted territory to Hospitallers.
  • Jerusalem distributed into separate fiefs- careful organisation ensured they were well selected.

The importance of seaports

Economic links

  • Principal seaports of Acre/Tyre: Outremer's lifeline= secure route for goods/pilgrims.
  • New route made possible numerous opportunities to boost the Levantine economy.
129 of 188

5. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192

  • Helped Outremer become part of large, pre-existing trade network- linked West, BE and Egypt and import/export goods.
  • Ensured connection to Italian commerce- they established lucrative trading communities.
  • Communities made as part of a deal- Italian commune formed in territory granted to it in return for military support (Siege of Tyre 1124- Venetian fleet helped so got 1/3 of city/payments).
  • Provided revenue for settlers, service industries and local lords.

Military links 

  • Made it safer for Franks- after 1153 capture of Ascalon: no longer a safer place for Egyptian fleet to stop so couldn't harass Franks or attack EU ships.
  • Provided a means for outside help to reach Frankish settlers (1104 Genoese helped attack Acre and capture Gibelet).
  • 1167 and 1177 BE gave naval backing for Outremer's military campaigns.
  • Helped plug gap with outside support- the evidence is the success of 3rd crusade.
130 of 188

6. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192

Trade between Muslim and Christian cities 

  • Trade generated revenue for Outremer- settlers needed an outlet for goods to make money.
  • Muslim cities Aleppo/Damascus relied on trade to exchange goods w/BE and western EU.
  • Royal protection granted by Baldwin III to a Tyre Muslim to trade with Egypt; Muslims and Christians shared communities as it made a profit for traders/revenue for local lords.
  • Laws of Jerusalem outlined taxes for trades- was a trading community that relied upon connections between its Chrisitan settlements.

Patterns of settlement and migration from EU

  • Franks was the minority in Outremer after the 1st crusade.
  • Godfrey (1st ruler of Jerusalem) had only 300 knights after 1099 so struggled to impose authority/organise defences.
131 of 188

7. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192

Reasons for settlement in Outremer 

  • Some crusaders felt obligated to stay if lords did and some stayed due their own volition.
  • Desire to live in Holy land for spiritual benefit.
  • Economic situation in Western EU- overcrowding, famine and demands for labour service whereas East had fertile land and had urban communities for trade.
  • Offered benefits to migrate- King Baldwin III in 1150 offered long-term leasing on housing and they only had to pay 1/7th crops to him.
  • Farmers in Outremer got a better deal than in EU- labour service undemanding.

Migration from EU: who settled there?

  • Many EU migrants in rural villages and communities of westerners in Outremer.
  • Urban settlers- Italian quarters in Outremer from Genoa, Pisa and Venice.
  • e.g. port of Tyre granted 1/3 of the land to a Venetian settlement.
132 of 188

8. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192

Effects: patterns of settlement in Outremer 

  • 200 colonial settlements- small farms to fully planned developments.
  • e.g. village of Ramot near Jerusalem had fortified building for storage, construction around a road to transport produce and ***** fields for farming.

The absence of forced conversions

  • Rural: Frankish farmers lived and worked alongside indigenous Christian groups.
  • Urban: different groups worked together but in different quarters.
  • Muslims lived in Acre, Tyre and Tripoli without having to convert.
  • Jerusalem's population was 20,000 in an early 12th century and grew to 30,000 (explains why towns were the focus of a campaign/crusade as they were centres of Frankish settlement).
133 of 188

1. Defence of Outremer

Baldwin's consolidation of territory 1100-18

  • Baldwin faced several threats in 1100; had only Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Jaffa.
  • 1st threat- Fatimids of Egypt: launched 10 invasions, defeating Christians at Ramla.
  • 2nd threat- had to help fellow rulers in North, fighting of Mosul and Aleppo from Outremer.
  • 3rd threat- little Frankish control of territory in Outremer, Muslims used trade routes as staging posts for invasion.

Acquisiton of territory 

  • Prioritised securing coastal areas for western help to arrive/prevent naval attack from Egypt.
  • Acquired key coastal towns such as Asurf, Acre and Tyre with help of foreign support= Genoa.

Effect of Baldwin's defence strategy

  • Egyptians didn't succeed in annual invasion attempts and coastal towns grew however still threats for future rulers in 1118: expansion east caused tensions w/Damascus, pilgrims still faced raids on route, most ports in Frankish control bar Ascalon.
134 of 188

2. Defence of Outremer

Adoption of local methods of fortification and the building of castles

  • Due to lack of natural boundaries, relied on fortified settlements for security.
  • Edessa relied on fortified towns e.g. Turbesel and Tripoli used castles for acquisition.
  • Antioch used castle at Margat to defend coastal access; had main port Latakia.
  • Jerusalem had Chastel Hernault in 1130s to defend road in and Jaffa had walls built.

Changing use of castles

  • Consolidation/submission- castles to establish control over captured territory till 1115.
  • Admin- once Frankish control was secure, they became symbol of local lord's authority.
  • Defence- from late 1160s used primarly for defence again (Muslim threat increased).
  • Castles seldom fell to direct assault despite having small garrisons.
135 of 188

3. Defence of Outremer

Protection of the military orders: Templars and Hospitallers 

Military roles

  • Hospitallers shited from care-giver role in 1130s, helped defend when Fulk gave a castle 1136.
  • Hospitallers process of militarisation sped up in 1160s; given 12 castles.
  • Templars set up w/military role- 1129 received formal approval at Council of Troyes.

Role in military campaigns 

  • 1149- Templars helped Antioch against Nur ad-Din (sent 120 knights, 1,000 soldiers).
  • 1177- 80 Templars joined Frankish forces to defeat Saladin.
  • Hospitallers helped remove Egypt threat, 1167- offered 500 knights for the campaign, making them nearly bankrupt.
  • Hospitallers owed 100,000 bezants but still helped in battles from 1170-87 against Muslims.
136 of 188

4. Defence of Outremer

Defence of settlements

  • Helped defend key urban cities- had to man the ramparts at Acre, Tripoli and Tyre.
  • Entrusted to govern/defend cities- Tortosa given to Templars 1152, Hospitallers got Sidon.
  • Rulers had insufficient resources: reliance on orders meant that burden on their brother knights grew as Muslim threat increased.

The control of border castles by Templars and Hospitallers

  • Had resources to garrison them- 1187 Baldwin IV gave Templars Jacob's Ford.
  • Rulers entrusted the orders- minimised capacity for regents to overpower rulers.
  • Had resources to build fortifications and government was weak.
  • States needed more money- Raymond III gave Hospitallers fortress at Turban in 1180 to pay off his debt to them of 80,000 bezants. 
137 of 188

6. Defence of Outremer

Early support for the military orders 

  • Templars leader Hugh of Payns went to EU to get financial support in 1127- Henry I donated silver/gold and helped to encourage the patronage of Templars.
  • 1139- Eleanor of Aquitaine gave Templars house in the port of La Rochelle and 1141- Duke of Britanny gave Templars an island in Nantes.
  • One-off noble donations and regular donations by local village landholders (1120 charter lists 44 individual donations) helped them build castles, pay mercenaries, supply garrisons.
  • Hospitallers also got the support of wealthy patrons and received smaller donations.

How did donations develop over time?

  • Increased threat after a 2nd crusade= large increase in EU donation to orders.
  • 1172- Henry II of England would pay for 200 knights to stay in Jerusalem.
  • EU nobles/churchmen helped generate an environment of patronage for orders- Pope Celestine II published a bull in 1144 which granted 1/7th indulgence for donators to Templars.
  • King Henry II gave Templars right to assert 2,000 acres of woodland. 
138 of 188

7. Defence of Outremer

Lack of support for states from Byzantium and Europe 

Byzantine support 1099-1144

  • Baldwin III King of Jerusalem sold fortresses in Edessa to BE late 1150- relations improved.
  • Positive relations cemented by marriage alliances- Manuel married Frankish bride 1161, 1158 King Baldwin III married Manuel's niece.
  • Better relations led to practical support and co-operation between BE and Franks.
  • Manuel offered support for at least 2 Frankish campaigns that wouldn't have a direct impact on BE/further territorial interests.

Reversal of relations 

  • Good relations between BE and Outremer ended when Manuel died in 1180- replaced by Andronicus who had no desire of relations w/Franks, allied with Saladin mid-1180s for power.
  • The decline in Franco-Byzantine relations= no further support from BE and Saladin could pursue a campaign against Outremer with renewed vigour.
139 of 188

8. Defence of Outremer

EU support between the crusades

  • EU was Outremer's lifeline- without their support, Frankish control would cease in the states.
  • Venetian fleet helped capture Tyre 1124 and Ascalon in 1153- pilgrims helped for money.
  • After 2nd crusade, Antioch faced threat of Muslim invasion- appeal for help by Louis ignored.
  • Many more ignored (between 1177-84, 7 crusade letters authorised but no crusade till 1189).
  • Turned to establishing relations w/Muslims to handle the threat- 1171 King Almaric did so.
  • Main effect of no EU support- borders began to contract 1170s.
  • Insufficient defence: Tripoli castles lost to Nur in 1160s, 1179- Franks defeated in Banyas and Saladin destroyed Jacob's ford castle.
  • Without EU, Outremer rulers didn't have sufficient resources to maintain defences (feudal lists- could only call up to 2,000 knights compared to 6,000 in 1st crusade).
  • Bad knightly resources and EU unwillingness to help/bad relations with BE helped Saladin penetrate Outremer defence in the late 1180s.
140 of 188

1. Government of Outremer

Rule of Baldwin I and Baldwin II

Reign of Baldwin I 

  • Strong reign- consolidated territories and established clear overlordship system over vassals.
  • Authority over Church: patriarch of Jerusalem deposed by Baldwin in 1102 as he opposed him.
  • Intervention in the affairs of the kingdom was successful: helped w/Tripoli succession in 1109.
  • Defence of the kingdom: actively defended against Turkish threat, consolidated territory.
  • The intensive castle-building programme began by Baldwin- Montreal constructed in 1115.

Reign of Baldwin II 1118

  • Eustace (Baldwin's brother) was heir but Baldwin claimed throne- his presence in Jerusalem secured him the kingship as well as key supporters.
  • Effective defender- acted at Antioch's regent till 1126 (6 trips there to resolve issues/defend).
  • Continued Baldwin's strategy of territorial expansion to minimise Muslim threat to holy city.
141 of 188

2. Government of Outremer

  • 1st issue: rebellion- 1123 he was captured in a military campaign and released in 1124.
  • 2nd issue: church- patriarch of Jerusalem tried to claim Jaffa, Baldwin refused.
  • 3rd issue: succession- no son, married Melisende to Fulk and named joint heirs.
  • These occured due to his absense being in Antioch- nobels could rebel.

Baldwin III and conflict with Queen Melisende 1131

  • Acession to throne created conflict between Montlhery's (Melisende's family and Count Hugh of Jaffa are members) + Angevins (newly represented in East by Count Fulk of Anjou).
  • Conflict- Fulk put Angevins in key positions of Jerusalem nobility to consolidate position and treid to rule without Melisende's input.
  • Hugh revolted in 1134 against Fulk: supposed to have a trial by combat but he retreated to Ascalon and made treaty w/Muslims against Fulk.
142 of 188

3. Government of Outremer

The power of Queen Melisende 

  • Fulk gave her a greater role in everyday gov to avoid animosity towards his leadership.
  • Baldwin III of age in 1145: Melisende was unprepared to give her role over.
  • Baldwin tried to resolve in 1152- requested formal division of kingdom but she ignored.
  • Melisende was beseiged in Jerusalem, forced back to Nablus= Baldwin now undisputed ruler.

The rule of Baldwin III

  • Built castle at Gaza, cutting vital road link between Ascalon + Egypt and acquired Ascalon in 1153= key port for control of Outremer's coast.
  • Crusader states bowed to his primacy: Joscelin II of Edessa captured 1150, Raymond of Tripoli murdered 1152 so all looked to him to restore stability.
  • His lords forced to submit: some in Jerusalem ruled over vast fiefs and ignored him, made to return their fiefs if they did.
  • Ensured stable succession- brother Almaric succeeded him in 1163 (well established in Jaffa).
143 of 188

3. Government of Outremer

The power of Queen Melisende 

  • Fulk gave her a greater role in everyday gov to avoid animosity towards his leadership.
  • Baldwin III of age in 1145: Melisende was unprepared to give her role over.
  • Baldwin tried to resolve in 1152- requested formal division of kingdom but she ignored.
  • Melisende was beseiged in Jerusalem, forced back to Nablus= Baldwin now undisputed ruler.

The rule of Baldwin III

  • Built castle at Gaza, cutting vital road link between Ascalon + Egypt and acquired Ascalon in 1153= key port for control of Outremer's coast.
  • Crusader states bowed to his primacy: Joscelin II of Edessa captured 1150, Raymond of Tripoli murdered 1152 so all looked to him to restore stability.
  • His lords forced to submit: some in Jerusalem ruled over vast fiefs and ignored him, made to return their fiefs if they did.
  • Ensured stable succession- brother Almaric succeeded him in 1163 (well established in Jaffa).
144 of 188

4. Government of Outremer

The power of Queen Melisende 

  • Fulk gave her a greater role in everyday gov to avoid animosity towards his leadership.
  • Baldwin III of age in 1145: Melisende was unprepared to give her role over.
  • Baldwin tried to resolve in 1152- requested formal division of kingdom but she ignored.
  • Melisende was beseiged in Jerusalem, forced back to Nablus= Baldwin now undisputed ruler.

The rule of Baldwin III

  • Built castle at Gaza, cutting vital road link between Ascalon + Egypt and acquired Ascalon in 1153= key port for control of Outremer's coast.
  • Crusader states bowed to his primacy: Joscelin II of Edessa captured 1150, Raymond of Tripoli murdered 1152 so all looked to him to restore stability.
  • His lords forced to submit: some in Jerusalem ruled over vast fiefs and ignored him, made to return their fiefs if they did.
  • Ensured stable succession- brother Almaric succeeded him in 1163 (well established in Jaffa).

4. Government of Outremer

Rule of 'leper king' Baldwin IV

  • Almaric died 1174: gov divided by factionalism as he married twice so divided the nobility.
  • 13 years old- too young so one of Alamric's closest advisors Miles of Plancy was regent.
  • Count Raymond of Tripoli regent after Plancy dies in 1174- paralysed gov as he wanted power.

Baldwin's leprosy

  • Unable to have children: the prioritised issue of Sybil's marriage to get a male heir.
  • Regent Raymond worried that Sybil's husband would diminish his power so intervented before Baldwin IV's candidate of Hugh reached Jerusalem.
  • 1180- Raymond + Bohemond III of Antioch invade, wanted Sybil to marry Ibelin but Baldwin wanted Guy of Lusignan, Raymond's attempt to raise his status failed.
  • Guy made regent due to Saladin threat; lords didn't obey him so Saladin plundered Galilee.
  • Baldwin lost faith in Guy and retook control of the kingdom.
  • Raymond's desire for power weakened the gov; Saladin able to act due to gov ineffectiveness.
145 of 188

5. Government of Outremer

Growing divisions: the succession crisis of 1185

  • Sybil's son Baldwin V crowned King/co-ruler which infuriated Guy- he refused Baldwin access to port of Ascalon.
  • Raymond appointed regent in 1185- his faction was popular with the King.

Raymond's fall from power

  • Joscelin III of Courtenay convinced Raymond to retreat to his lordship territory of Tiberias.
  • Sibyl's faction were 1st to act- crowned Queen and Guy was her King.
  • Raymond's faction met at Nablus planning to crown Isabel/Humphrey, instead of accepting it, Humphrey heard of Guy's coronation and paid him homage.

Effects of the divisions

  • Divided nobility: despite Guy ruling, 2 factions still existed so had an unorganised offensive.
  • Inactive gov: crippled by factionalism (unable to convince West to help).
  • Cease in hostilities: Raymond made truce w/Saladin in 1185.
146 of 188

6. Government of Outremer

The significance of Raymond of Tripoli's truce with Saladin 

The first hostilities 

  • Made truce when he was Baldwin V's regent- logical as the kingdom was too divided to attack.
  • 1187- Reynald of Chatillon raided a Muslim caravan which he refused to return= Saladin attacked Kerak and Montreal.
  • Raymond asked Saladin to help against Guy's forces in return for 7,000 of them to journey through Galilee to besiege Acre in 1187.
  • Force sent to Tiberias to encourage Raymond to restore relations w/Guy but a lauched attack on Saladin's forces (outnumbered= only had 130 knights and 300 men).
  • 1187- Saladin abandons agreement and lays siege to Raymond's town of Tiberias.
  • Guy suffered a defeat at the Battle of Hattin and Jerusalem fell shortly after.
  • The stage was set for the 3rd crusade.
147 of 188

1. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Why did the Muslim opposition to the 1st crusade fail?

Sunni Seljuk Turk and Shi'ah Fatimid Egypt divide:

  • The 11th century- Islam split into 2 which led to rising in rival dynasties who both wanted to rule. 
  • When crusaders arrived in Asia Minor in 1097, disunity prevented effective Muslim counter-attack.
  • Sunni's believed the line of descent had differing paths whereas Fatimids claimed they were direct descendants of Ali Caliph.

Kilij Arslan and Kerbogha 

  • Was the Seljuk Sultan of Rum: failed to stop crusading armies descent into Outremer meant his rep as a Sultan was shattered.
  • Kerbogha was the powerful ruler of Northern Iraq- partly responsible for Seljuk Empire disunity.
  • Since 1095, he was trying to expand his own kingdom/influence, capturing Mossul 1095.
148 of 188

2. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Weaknesses in 1095

  • Several prominent figures died 1090s; transforming political landscape of Muslim empires.
  • 1- 1092: Malik Shah's vizier killed and he died later causing succession crisis of Seljuk Empire.
  • 2-1094: Egyptian vizier died as did Fatimid Caliph so they also faced a succession crisis.
  • Fatimids soon resumed attacks/retaking Jerusalem in 1098= death had short-term effect.
  • Sunni's empire collapsed into rival terriroties ruled by different atabegs= long-term effect.
  • Following factors divided the Sunni's: Malik left Aleppo to Ridwan who was unpopular, Atabeg of Mosul threatened Ridwan's rule, Ridwan's brother tried to stop him increasing possessions in Syria.
  • Infighting caused disintegration of Seljuk Empire and group of rival atabegs= no surprise that Fatimids took Jerusalem in 1098 or that the Muslim counter-attack was ineffective, too divided.
149 of 188

3. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

The significance of Killij Arslan's defeat at Nicea 1097 

Background to the siege of Nicea and the Siege

  • May 1097: could've destroyed prince's armies due to their staggered departure before they sieged Nicea and caused them to retreat.
  • Kilij was occupied so Muslim strength not utilised- 7,500 knights + 5000 infantry began the siege.
  • Crusaders dual strategy of the land-based blockade to get supplies/block garrison caused surrender of Nicea; Kilij was outnumbered so fled South.
  • A fleet from Alexius used to blockade water side of Nicea- garrison surrendered.

Why did Kilij Arslan fail?

  • Arrived too late- busy in conflict w/Danishmend Turks over Malatya.
  • Crusaders were prepared- discussed strategy, secured supplies.
  • Difficult position with crusaders surrounding the city and already weakened by the previous campaign.
  • Loss of Nicea was a costly error- surrender meant loss of capital, family and money.
150 of 188

4. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

The significance of Killij Arlsan's defeat at Dorylaeum 

  • Crusaders had 50,000 and 7,000 knights- Arslan had 6,000 troops.
  • Tried to increase chances w/diplomacy (unite fellow Muslims/made alliance with former enemy Danishmend emir).
  • Seljuk Turks and Danishmend turks attacked Bohemond's contingent at Dorylaeum 1097 but Godfrey arrived and outnumbered Arslan.
  • 4,000 Christians killed but army undefeated, countinued to Anatolia to Holy Land.

Why was the Battle of Dorylaeum significant?

  • Shattered Arslan's rep as a powerful Sultan.
  • Main consequences of his defeat were: BE occupation- with his forces weakened the BE took the opportunity to reoccupy Nicea/surrounding towns, Turkish forces wiped out (3,000 killed), education (crusaders copied Turk tactics e.g. feigned retreat).
  • At end of 1097- intitial attempt to prevent 1st crusade failed as the muslims were disunited.
  • By the time they decided to co-operate it was too late- Nicea surrendered and authority of Turkish rulers were weakend, BE had re-established its grip on the region. 
151 of 188

5. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

The defeat of Kerbogha's force at Antioch 1098

Early attempts

  • Franks laied siege in Oct but Turks only organised relief force for city's garrison in December.
  • Many knights survived as Bohemond held cavalry in formation but the loss of many infantry.
  • A new force of 12,000 under Ridwan set out in Feb 1098- crusaders w/700 mounted knights.
  • Despite numerical superiority, Turks defeated by Bohemond's leadership (surprise/cavalry charge to force retreat).

Kerbogha's final attempt

  • May 1098- crusaders able to attack Antioch w/no effective opposition, so Kerbogha got 35,000 Turks to begin assault on Antioch.
  • Bohemond's victory on 28 June, Turks contributed to their downfall due to: time wasting (Kerbogha spent 3 weeks trying to get Edessa), division amongst allies (didn't yield total authority), poor generalship on the field, Seljuk Fatimid divide (Fatimids didn't send army to support him and encouraged crusaders to focus on getting territory in North, not South).
152 of 188

Changing Muslim response to the crusades

The fall of Jerusalem in 1099 

The march South

  • Marched South through Asia Minor with no opposition and successfully take Antioch + Edessa.
  • The rivalry between rulers of Aleppo/Damascus grew= more in-fighting than opposing crusaders.
  • Seljuk division exacerbated as it didn't control all Syria/Palestine- the Arab emirs that ruled some of the territories didn't want to help the Seljuks and Fatimids.
  • The tension between rulers + ruled: Syrians were Shi'ah but ruled over by Sunni= won't unite.
  • Impact of divisions: Muslim towns preferred to negotiate- emir of Homs gave crusaders cash for city's safety or others offered them guides so they'd bypass their towns.
  • Biggest division: Egyptian Fatimids in control of Jerusalem negotiated with crusaders and talks ended in 1099 when Egyptian vizier presented the final offer in June 1099- already at Bethlehem.
153 of 188

7. Changing Muslim response to the crusade

The failure to defend Jerusalem 

  • When crusaders reached J, had recently been captured by Egyptian Fatimids from Seljuk.
  • Fatimids didn't fortify city for siege and siege machines they used were dissembled- wood hidden was found by crusaders to make their own siege towers.
  • Fatimid commander of Jerusalem had no immediate support from Egypt.
  • Reason the siege was a success for crusaders- commander faced too great a challenge.
  • Crusaders attacked on 2 fronts but garrison not big enough to defend both, moved siege tower to displace troops.
  • By the time Fatimid al-Afdal arrived w/20,000 it was too late.
  • Fatimids (delayed by overconfidence/rivarly w/Syrian Muslims) failed to defend Jerusalem.
154 of 188

7. Muslim response to the crusades

Muslim power increase 1144-69

Zengi and seizure of Edessa 1144


  • Sunni Governor of Mosul was 1st to use jihad rhetoric, claimed Islamic world needed to be brought under one ruler so made caliph the symbolic head but he exercised practical power.
  • Success-force/diplomacy carved large principality in Syria/Iraq- spread power from Mosul to Aleppo and reduced Frankish threat by capturing castles near Tripoli.

Limits to Zengi's power

  • Damascus Turks- Damascus' atabeg strengthened power by alliance/Franks against him in 1140.
  • Artuqid Turks- limited his control of territory around Aleppo/Mosul.
  • Seljuk Turks of Anatolia- block the spread of his influence in the north-west of his territories.
  • Franks- the threat from Tripoli e.g. Count launched unsuccessful attack mid-1130s.
  • Byzantines- 1138 John Comnenus attacked Shaizar/almost succeded in its capture.
155 of 188

8. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

The seizure of Edessa

  • Was a reaction to political situation in Islam/Christian territories- triggered by Count Joscelin II of Edessa and Artuqid Turks alliance (threatened Zengi but gave him opportunity).
  • 1144- Joscelin responded to Artuqid's request for help, Zengi could weaken them by removing ally/build jihad rep as people said he seemed focused more on fighting against Muslims.
  • Late 1144- began to lay siege, dug tunnels under northern walls/built siege towers.
  • Ordered wooden props of tunnels to set fire- walls collapsed and citadel captured (15,000 Edessans dead).

Effect of the seizure

  • Restored his status as leader of jihad against Franks.
  • Immediately tried to consolidate victory; capturing Suruc in 1145.
  • Zengi had set the stage for a Muslim counter-attack and Frank power began to slip.
156 of 188

9. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Nur ad-Din's consolidation of power 1146-54

Nur ad-Din's goals

  • 1146 Zengi killed so his sons inherited territories, Nur got Aleppo, closest to Frankish border.
  • Intitial goals: unite Syria under 1 ruler, reduce Frankish threat on western border.
  • To unite Syria he'd need control of principal cities of Damascus and Homs but would only be secure if he reduced Frankish influence in Edessa and minimised Antioch threat.

Tackling the Frankish threat: Antioch

  • Fall of Edessa 1144- biggest threat to Aleppo/Nur's power so forms alliance with Seljuk sultan of Rum and captured nearby territory to secure access.
  • 1149- direct assault on city's key strongholds w/help from Damascene force.
  • Battle of Inab a huge victory for Nur- continued campaign in Antioch before making treaty w/Franks and taking territory from Antiochenes.
  • 1150- took control of region around Bira- extending his border westwards successfully.
157 of 188

Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Tackling the Frankish threat: Edessa

  • Edessans tried to retake city in 1146: Nur arrived w/Aleppan troops (30,00 massacred).
  • After giving Damascus support in siege- rekindled alliance w/Sultan of Rum to subdue fortresses in Edessa.
  • Last major stronghold of Turbessel captured 1151 by Nur: could focus on unifying Muslim Syria.

The unification of Muslim Syria under one Muslim ruler 

  • 1149- Nur's brother died so he tried to capture Mosul to expand empire east but bad timing= Damascus ruler also died and there were an Antioch campaign and Edessan noble captured.
  • Instead, he began consolidation programme in Syria and lay claim to land in South.
  • Tried to convince Damascans to accept him as ruler but ruler installed formed Frank alliance to prevent him taking the city.
  • Nur began the attack in 1154 when the ruler was deposed.
  • Last step to unify- take the last stronghold of Burid dynasty, achieved in 1155 by capturing Ba-albek. Nur free to focus efforts on the reduction of crusader states, getting Egypt and Mosul.
158 of 188

11. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Nur ad-Din's growing rift with Saladin 

The growth of Nur ad-Din's power

  • Success in uniting Muslim Suria and campaigns in Edessa/Antioch helped cement jihad image.
  • 1154- earned place as Zengi's successor, contained threat to Syria many times.
  • 1- 1156: began to resolve Harenc issues, negotiated a treaty to share revenues between them.
  • 2- 1157: successfully repelled attack on Shaizar by Franks.
  • 3- 1164: defeated Christians at Artah and captured Frank nobles at Battle of Harim.
  • Nur continued to act as jihad ruler- 1159 made truce w/BE Manuel against Killij.
  • Franks did defeat him in 1163: his power increased but not ready for full-scale attack.

Issue of Egypt

  • Egypt could help their lack of resources- rich port of Alexandria but under Fatimid control.
  • Nur's situation endangered by the alliance against him between Egyptian vizier/Franks.
  • 1167: vizier offered Franks 400,000 dinars if they'd stay in Egypt until Nur was defeated.
159 of 188

12. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Egyptian campaign: rise of Saladin 

  • Saladin rose to prominence in Nur's Egypt campaign- acted as second in command.
  • 1167- they attacked and captured Alexandria, Saladin was in charge of defence.
  • Marched to Cairo to defend it and Almaric withdrew 1169; 1st in command Shirkuh made himself Egyptian vizier's replacement (yielded practical power).
  • 1169- Shirkuh died after brief vizier rule, replaced by Saladin.

Rift between Nur ad-Din and Saladin

  • Initially, Saladin as vizier seemed a victory for Nur but rather than helping him spread power across Fatimid Egypt, tried to bolster power base- put family in gov key positions.
  • Created military corp to strengthen position further.
  • 3 instances Saladin failed to act according to Nur: 1171- they planned a joint offensive but Saladin retreated too early, 1173- Saladin attacked castles at Montreal and Nur planned to join but Saladin left to consolidate Egyptian territory, 1173- Nur ordered financial audit of Egypt but Saladin replied with gifts not promise of an annual tribute.
160 of 188

13. Changing Muslim response to the crusade

The power of Saladin: consolidation of power in Egypt and Syria 1169-84

Control of Egypt

  • Strengthened hold on Egypt by placing the family in key gov positions, a created military unit responsible to him, prioritised Egypt's needs over Nur's.
  • 1st step to win over Egyptians: appointed Sunni Abbasid as caliph to end Fatimid dynasty.
  • Death of Fatimid caliph was a turning point in his control; cancelled unpopular trading tax (mukus) in Fustat/Cairo to construct an image of a selfless leader.

Death of Nur ad-Din

  • 1174- broadened his horizons beyond Egypt's borders, Nur's son given Aleppo and nephew Mosul.
  • To be most powerful ruler/next leader of jihad, he had to: reconstruct Nur's territories under one leader, legitimise authority outside Egypt by negotiations, maintain loyalty to predecessor's claims by the slow acquisition of power.
161 of 188

14. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Stage 1: Damascus 

  • Easiest conquest: 1174 marched peacefully into city and Franks didn't help Damsacenes so Saladin proclaimed himself as ruler and married Nur's widow in 1176.
  • City submitted itself, gave him troops for Aleppo campaign (now had Egypt/northern Syria).

Stage 2: Aleppo 

  • Had to take it by force from a legitimate heir: an alliance between Aleppo/Mosul and struggled to get Abbasid caliph of Baghdad to support him. 
  • Eventual submission in 1183, took 9 years.

Stage 3: Mosul

  • 1185- 1st took territory around city then began to besiege it.
  • Mosul's new king refused battle and Saladin fell ill- made permanent peace w/Mosul.
  • 1186- Mosul King accepted Saladin's overlordship, made peace treaty so Mosul would provide him with troops against Franks: at peak of power as a Muslim rule
162 of 188

14. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Stage 1: Damascus 

  • Easiest conquest: 1174 marched peacefully into city and Franks didn't help Damsacenes so Saladin proclaimed himself as ruler and married Nur's widow in 1176.
  • City submitted itself, gave him troops for Aleppo campaign (now had Egypt/northern Syria).

Stage 2: Aleppo 

  • Had to take it by force from a legitimate heir: an alliance between Aleppo/Mosul and struggled to get Abbasid caliph of Baghdad to support him. 
  • Eventual submission in 1183, took 9 years.

Stage 3: Mosul

  • 1185- 1st took territory around city then began to besiege it.
  • Mosul's new king refused battle and Saladin fell ill- made permanent peace w/Mosul.
  • 1186- Mosul King accepted Saladin's overlordship, made preace treaty so Mosul would provide him with troops against Franks: at peak of power as a Muslim ruler.
163 of 188

15. Changing Muslim response to crusades

Securing his position 

  • Encouraged Abbasid caliph of Baghdad to formally invest him as city's ruler; was invested w/Egypt, Yemen and most of Syria but new caliph refused to invest him with Mosul.
  • His emirs could be safe knowing their power flowed from a legitimate ruler.
  • Needed to quell personal threats- al Salih's supporters sponsored 13 assasins to kill him.
  • Revenge 1176- took army to Assasin's castle and his men plundered surrounding region.

Tackling the Frankish threat 

  • Preoccupied trying to bring Muslim Syria/Jazira under control until 1184 but launched successful offensives into Jerusalem 1170-83, acquired Gaza, Bura and plundered Galilee.
  • Setbacks- defeated by Franks in 1177 and lost 1,000 men, 750 wounded, 1182- failed to capture Beirut, 1183- plundered Galilee but failed to start battle, 1183- besieged Kerak but didn't take it/withdrew.
  • Tackling Frank threat was a distraction, not a goal: made truces to solve Islamic disuity.
  • Truce w/BE emperor negotiated with border security in mind: ready to take on Franks
164 of 188

16. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

The attack on Tiberias

  • 1187- leader of jihad, unpopular with Abbasid caliph but had combined forces of three countries to call upon (crusaders struggled to get Western support).
  • Invaded Jerusalem w/7000- entered Galilee under a treaty with Raymond of Tripoli.
  • Numerical superiority led to his success: 30,000 men of 12,000 cavalries and King Guy had 20,000 with 1,200 mounted knights.
  • 1187- planned to lure Franks in, they attacked and captured Tiberias but citadel held out.

The battle of Hattin

  • Guy took an army in- no longer had to access to water supply in the city so camped overnight.
  • Saladin's troops raided camp so Guy changed strategy to head to springs but Saladin prevented them (Guy gathered troops on hills at Homs of Hattin as last attempt).
  • Guy launched 2 cavalry charges without effect, taken prisoner by Saladin and truce cross taken.
165 of 188

Changing Muslim response to the crusades

The effects of the Battle of Hattin 

  • Victory opened way for Saladin to control Jerusalem: Reynald beheaded and Guy sent away.
  • Fear of Saladin + the fact that most city garrisons in Jerusalem sent men to help Guy, meant most cities capitulated due to lack of forces.
  • If any city offered significant resistance he bypassed it e.g. Antioch/Tortosa stayed w/Franks.

The fall of Jerusalem to Saladin in 1187

  • Was defended by Balian of Nablus but its defence was undermanned; city fell after short siege in 1187.
  • Saladin improved rep by allowing citizens of the city to ransom themselves (e.g. 7000 of poor granted freedom for 30,000 bezants).
  • Muslim forces had to commit to sieges to consolidate, Saladin occupied himself with: taking territory south to Antioch, taking defences further North, long sieges of isolated castles.
  • Dedicated his time again to a consolidation programme- helped ensure that Jerusalem would remain in Muslim hands rather than fall to 3rd crusaders.
166 of 188

18. Changing Muslim response to crusade

Siege of Acre and Battle of Arsuf 1188-91

Saladin's position after 1187

  • Faced many issues: loss of troops, funding (cost his emirs lots to stay out in field), Frankish resistance (had Jerusalem but others continued to fight e.g. couldn't capture Tripoli).

1189: the beginning of Siege of Acre

  • Acre- belonged to Saladin, could be a possible naval base for Franks to get to the Holy city.
  • 1189- Guy began siege, Saladin prevaricated but soon launched a failed attack on his camp.
  • Crusaders responded by attacking Saladin (failed).
  • Saladin requested help from Northern Syria allies but arrived too late in 1190 so Saladin delayed further action.
167 of 188

19. Changing Muslim response to crusade

Why did 1190 campaign to relieve Acre fail?

  • Both sides trapped in stalemate due to failure to co-ordinate Muslim allied forces.
  • Saladin slowed progress by focusing on conquest of Beaufort castle; cost him lots of money to keep troops on the field and no major action till July 1190.
  • Franks attacks on their camps were repelled= 12,000 killed but were able to recover.
  • Saladin began withdrawing but Franks tried to march to take Haifa, were defeated.

The fall of Acre

  • Main causes of his failures to stop Franks as Mulsim garrison surrender in 1191:
  • 1- 2 year breathing space let Guy strengthen his troops.
  • 2- Guy had support from King Phillip II of France + King Richard I of England.
  • 3- Saladin outnumbered (not all re-joined him such as Killij Arslan and Zangi).
  • 4-Christian blockade of city preventing supplies entering- starved out.
  • Saladin was forced to seek terms- payed 200,000 dinars, return Truce cross and free prisoners if Christians released Muslim prisoners (Richard I massacred 2,700 prisoners- fear tactic).
168 of 188

20. Changing Muslim response to crusade

The Battle of Arsuf 

  • King Richard's troops began march to retake Jaffa 1191 but Saladin intercepted.
  • Saladin retreated from battle; Richard undefeated despite Saladin's force of 30,000.

Saladin's success in keeping Muslim control of Jerusalem in 1192

  • Saladin divided his efforts across Outremer, allowing Franks to capture Acre/Jaffa.
  • Focused on defence in Jerusalem so it remained in his hands- fort building, slaves built defences at Ascalon).

Prep for Richard I's 1st attempt on Jerusalem

  • Saladin tried to prevent Franks from acquiring more Muslim strongholds- destroyed Ascalon fortifications/Ramla castle).
  • Requested troops to assist in defence from Egypt- improving morale.
  • Richard withdrew from 1st March to Jerusalem due to a strong defence.
169 of 188

21. Changing Muslim response to crusades

Richard I's 2nd attempt

  • Saladin took more action to strengthen hold: allowed troops to return home early to rest/return in May, deployed field army sensibly, developed his intelligence network (spies told him plans, poisoned water supplies outside city).
  • Saladin left city when 2nd march came, safe knowing reinforcements were coming.
  • Richard came but soon departed, city was safe.

The truce

  • Jerusalem no longer a target for 3rd crusade- truce w/Franks in 1192 and secured a long-term Frankish presence on the coast.
  • Confirmed that city was under Muslim control- truce lasted 3yrs but city itself under their rule till 1229.
  • When Saladin died 1193, he was a strong Muslim ruler and launched a jihad that destroyed much of the legacy of the 1st crusade.
170 of 188

1. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Innocent's role in the failure of the 4th crusade

  • Saladin dies 1193 and Muslim empire divides- Franks take business as usual approach.
  • Appeared that the zeal to regain Jerusalem had failed.
  • When Pope was elected, he hoped to secure territory of papacy from political threats.
  • Other concern was the fate of Outremer/Jerusalem- neither was under immediate threat.
  • Before his election in 1197, a crusade set out by Henry IV of Germany but failed.
  • 1198- issued crusading bull Post Miserabile setting out the organisation of crusade.

Innocent's crusade reforms 

Attracting crusaders

  • Offered a new plenary indulgence to more groups: self-funding crusader, crusader who's journey was funded by another, non-crusader who paid for another to go on crusade.
  • Hoped to have 2 benefits: bolster funding and discourage non-combatants.
  • Pope abandoned long-standing doctrinal position about powers of a wife (dont need her permission to go on crusade) to bolster recruits.
171 of 188

3. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Maximising recruitment 

  • 1198- set up general executive office for 'Business of the cross' to ensure a named individual was responsible for different areas under control of Rome so Pope had less to control.
  • Made official appointments (Fulk of Neuilly, Abbot Martin of Paris).
  • Borrowed from successful feature of 3rd crusade- appointed legates for powerful leaders: Peter of Capuano sent to England/France and Soffredo sent to Venice to make preparations.

Ensuring success

  • Main problems of past crusades had been:
  • 1-Poorly defined nature of commitment- several nobles/followers abandoned 1st crusade.
  • Solution: Post Miserabile stated 2 years of service was required to fulfil vow.
  • 2-Lack of communication w/Outremer leaders before 2nd crusade led to inaction/dispute.
  • Solution: used papal legates to go to Outremer before the crusade.
  • 3-Cost of participation in 3rd crusade had been prohibitive to potential crusaders.
  • Solution: encouraged bishops to commit 1/13th of incomes and issues Graves orientalis terrae and ordered chests to be placed in churches.
172 of 188

4. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Problems with Innocent III's plans 

Didn't secure powerful secular leadership 

  • Peter approached Richard I, asking for a 5year truce between him + Phillip but then also asked to release Bishop from imprisonment (step to far for Richard).
  • Richard died 1199 and succession crisis that followed ensured England was preoccupied.
  • Peter alienated Phillip as potential leader as he insisted that he should restore his lawful wife/send away new wife which he refused, Peter put France under interdict.
  • Phillip also too busy to lead- Richard's death allowed him to enlarge his kingdom.
  • German Holy Roman Emperor-Elect Phillip of Swabia wasn't considered as Innocent disputed his claim to imperial title.

Recruitment problems

  • Preachers failed to get recruits as they were controversial (Fulk had rumours of embezzlement of funds)= small force in Venice 1202.
  • Innocent involved in Henry IV's succession diverted recruits, failed to appreciate conceptions of chivalry and failed to recruit top strata of secular society.
173 of 188

5. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade


  • Changed features of a crusade too much too fast- Church wide tax unsuccessful.
  • Fought conservative thinking with demand for 1/40th Church income.
  • Too short a deadline- only gave 6 months after bull was published so little time for leadership decisions, recruitment and arrangement of transportation to Outremer.

Innocent's determination to lead the crusade: attempts and failures

  • Partial blame for failure as he made initial plans without support from Kings/Emperors.
  • 3 key turning points in crusade leading to its eventual collapse:
  • 1- 1202: crusaders attack Zara on behalf of Venetians, rather than travel to Outremer.
  • 2- 1203: crusaders diverted to Constantinople to reclaim it for Alexius rather than Outremer.
  • 3: 1204: attack Constantinople and establish Romania- Peter absolves them of their vow.
174 of 188

6. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Failure to influence Zara campaign

  • Attacked Zara under King of Hungary, Innocent had 2 methods to try prevent attack.
  • 1- Papal legate Peter had authority to make decisions on Pope's behalf.
  • 2- Communicate views to leaders (sent a letter forbiding attack/threatened excommunication).
  • Attack showed his impotence in controlling them; Peter endorsed attack for fear crusade force would disintegrate so Pope lost hope of directing course of campaign.
  • Papal letters were supressed rather than released- letter in Zara 1202.

Failure to prevent Constantinople diversion

  • Innocent was in talks with Alexius III over unifying eastern/western churches, used diplomacy to encourage him to leave crusade alone, when Prince Alexius presented plan to overthrow Alexius III the Pope opposed.
  • 1203- letter banning attacks on Christian lands without just cause. and letter of excommunication.
  • Sent a message w/envoy of bishops that any attack on Constantinople was prohibited.
  • Pope was powerless- symbol of papal authority removed with bulls supressed.
175 of 188

7. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

The neglect of the Holy Land 

  • 1204- Constantinople captured and Baldwin of Flanders elected as emperor, est. as Romania.
  • Pope had no influence so they didn't carry on crusade, mid 1205- Peter granted crusaders absolution from crusade vow without Pope's consent.

How did the size and leadership of crusading forces contribute to failure


  • Earliest leaders were barons from France/Flanders e.g. Thibault, Simon of Montfort, Reynald, Baldwin of Flanders, Hugh of Saint Pol- tight knit group.
  • Was a chance to escape threat to lands from Phillip II which intensified by Richard's death.
  • Leaders connceted by shared political situation/family/geograpy- brought wealth/vassals.
  • BUT: unable to recruit Kings (legates failed to convince them, Richard dies 1199).
  • Needed baronial support to get lords, needed mercenaries but had no King to hire them.
  • Lack of royal leadership meant no countrywide taxes/naval fleets.
176 of 188

8. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Leadership's decisions: plan for 4th crusade

  • Devised by 3 counts from Northen EU, planned to send 6 reps to make agreements based on their decisions; had power to negotiate legal binding agreement on behalf of overlords.
  • Leaders agreed to sea travel- avoided BE. Needed to pay for a Venetian fleet.
  • Didn't tell crusaders that they've to sail to port Alexandria to capture rest of Egypt from Muslims.

Flaws in the plan

Problem 1: price of reliance on Venetians

  • Treaty of Venice 1201 terms were grant, assumed Venetians would provide transport for 33,500 men and 4,500 horses, 9 months of food and 30,000 Venetians.
  • Expected to meet 5,000 mark deposit, 85,000 marks in instalments and 1/2 of land acquired.
  • Over-ambitious transportation treaty- Venetian support a success but at a large price.
  • Treaty based on optimistic guesswork of envoy- guessed force of 35,000 for transportation when Venetians had only guaranteed 85,000 marks.
177 of 188

9. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Problem 2: Size of forces

  • Only 12,000 of 35,000 came in 1202: 1,800 were knights and the rest were support troops.
  • Important figures arrived late so didn't leave Venice in time (papal legative/Germans late).
  • Most punctual troops forced to wait at Lido, island near Venice.

Effect of Thibault III of Champagne's death 1201

  • No principal leader-passed on responsibility to fulfil crusade vow to Reynald of Dampierre.
  • Selected Boniface of Montferrat as leader- leaders swore oath to acknowledge him as head.
  • Poor punctuality- last at Lido on 15th August 1202.
  • 1-Loss of support from knights in Champagne region- Reynald sailed directly to Outremer to fulfil vow rather than wait for Venetian gathering.
  • 2-Bonifaces' nationality caused friction between leaders- was Italian and othes were French.
  • 3-Connections to Boniface were controversial: friends with Phillip of Swabia (Pope's enemy in imperial succession crisis) and was close with Byzantium as wife was daughter of Isaac Angelus the deposed emperor.
178 of 188

10. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

The effect of the decision to avoid Venice 

  • Some contingents avoided Venice (only some formally agreed), some travelled via another route to Outremer, some avoided Venice as they had little appreciation of why it was important to meet there (didn't know of plan to attack Zara).
  • Even those aware (Louis of Blois) tried to back out of treaty- little faith in plan.
  • Around 300 knights arrived in Outremer rather than travelling with crusaders, the following are notable absentees from Venetian gathering:
  • 1- Reynald of Dampierre: felt obliged to fulfil Thibault's request so went direct to Outremer.
  • 2- John of Nesle: didn't join Baldwin of Flanders on sail as he was delayed at Marseilles for winter, chose to sail directly to Outremer which deprived Baldwin of half of his possible men.
  • 3- Walter of Brienne: helped Pope deal w/Southern Italy threat and once this was resolved he went to Acre.
179 of 188

11. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Effect of finance on size of forces

  • Leaders who swore oath overreached themselves in Treaty; couldn't afford 20,000 troops.
  • Overly optimstic to assume noble support from EU would cover funding gap and inadequate funds worsened by Peter Capuano- absolving non-combatants from vow in 1202.
  • Helped chance of armies winning without infirm but deprived crusade of fee-paying personnel.

Consequences: in debt to Venetians

  • Venetians stopped all commercial activities for 18 months to prepare; by deadline, 500 ships ready to leave port but due to small force the leading nobles couldn't pay entire fee.
  • Signatories of Treaty relied on fact that other nobles would cover cost of their own troops.
  • With no fee-paying nobles, average fee per crusader was unaffordable.
  • With over 1/3 af anticipated forces at Lido, surprise leaders raised 51,000 marks.
  • Crusaders at Lido had little choice but to rely on governors of Venice to find solution to pay off 34,000 mark debt and resume 4th crusade.
180 of 188

1. Impact of Dandolo on the 4th crusade

Why did Dandolo propose an attack on Zara?

  • 1- Zara's value: Venetians lost control of it 1186, key stop-off to Outremer + Dalmatian oak.
  • 2- Personal investment: primary supporter of Treaty of Venice- means to recover debt.
  • 3- Risk of violence: force of 12,000 crusaders near Venice, had to pay 51,000 marks to city.
  • 4- Desire for salvation: was old/took vow in 1202 and could take use of plenary indulgence.
  • Plan was a way to meet a religious goal and a political and economic one (for him/Venice).

How did his proposals weaken the crusade?

  • Leading figures opposed attack as it was a Christian city/ruled by King Emeric who took oath.
  • Vow meant all his lands were under legal protection of Pope- city under papal protection.

Divisions in crusading force

  • Boniface and Peter went to Rome to tell Pope- force lost commander-in-chief and papal legates
181 of 188

2. Impact of Dandolo on the 4th crusade

How did the siege of Zara weaken the crusade?

  • 1st- delayed journey as they'd have to spend winter encamped outside Zara.
  • 2nd- several leading nobles abandoned (e.g. Simon began to question actions against Pope).
  • Morale worsened, compounded by Pope excommunicating crusaders at Zara.
  • Embassy sent to Rome to appeal this; Pope asked them to take an oath to avoid any more attacks on Christians without just case; French did, Venetians didn't so still excommunicated.
  • Gap grew between Venetian allies and original crusaders; different aims, army wanted to secure interests of city and crusaders wanted to fulfil vow/recapture Jerusalem.

Different views of the role of Venice and Dandolo

  • 1 Aim- improve Venetian trade material interests, get monopoly over Eastern trade.
  • 2 Aim- he had secret treaty w/Sultan of Egypt as it was rich/get more trade rights.
  • 3 Aim-Supports original plan and has trading interests in Zara, not Constantinople
182 of 188

1. Prince Alexius' failure to keep promises: cause

Prince Alexius' plan for the 4th crusade

  • Wanted to get father restored to imperial throne; got support from west EU courts.
  • Only major stumbling block was Constantinople's army; needed an army of his own.

The intervention of Prince Alexius: his proposal

  • Made appeal to crusaders via Phillip of Swabia in 1202 as Phillip's wife was his sister.
  • Envoy asked for crusaders help to restore his father to throne/crown him as co-emperor.
  • Prince offered: 200,000 marks, 10,000 troops, 500 knights, unite Eastern Christian church of BE back under control of Rome.

The supporters

  • Offers greated w/enthusiasm by leaders as more likely to recapture Jerusalem w/10,000 more troops, appealed to historial precidence, would allieviate issue of Venetian contract.
  • Could pay off contract and be assured of supplies once Constantinople task was complete.
183 of 188

2. Prince Alexius' failure to keep promises: cause

How did the proposal weaken the crusade?

  • Divided views between leaders/crusaders- unprepared to endure more delays (lost 2,000).
  • Crusading contingent reduced to 3,000 troops by 1203 but leadership remained intact as only Reynald diverted and Simon of Montfort abandoned.
  • Pope's influence on crusade eroded after Zara diversion- he opposed the proposal due to Phillip's involvement, now had little chance of forcing crusaders to continue to Outremer.

Crusaders at Constantinople 

Short-term achievements of the attack 

  • 1203- Isaac II restored to imperial throne, agreed w/leaders to commitments Alexius made and leaders forced Isaac to accept Alexius' coronation; now Alexius IV.
  • Westerner's closest BE ally could carry out bargain; gave crusaders 100,000 marks (50,000 for Venetians and rest to forces signed up to Treaty of Venice) but had to pay Venetians 36,000.
  • Waited at Galata with combined force of 3,000 troops.
184 of 188

3. Prince Alexius' failure to keep promises: cause

The failure of Prince Alexius and its significance 

Unfulfiled proposals 

  • Managed to pay 100,000 marks out of Constantinople treasury but promised 200,000; couldn't tax rulers in BE as they hadn't all submitted to him.
  • Ordered world-renown relics to be melted to raise money for provisioning crusaders at Gatala.
  • 1203 had to stop payments to crusaders: alienated allies by witholding funds/melting relics.
  • Unification of churches/end of schism unfulfilled despite patriarch's submission to Pope as patriarch didn't change doctrine to match the West or go to Rome to get Pallium.
  • 1203- asked leaders to remain at Constantinople till March 1204 and they had to agree as they didn't have provisions to go to Outremer.
  • In order for Alexius to deliver promises, had to strengthen his positition as emperor.
  • Crusaders joined him on tour of BE- delayed crusade.
185 of 188

4. Prince Alexius' failure to keep promises: cause

The fall of Alexius IV 

  • 1204- Isaac II and Alexius IV imprisoned so Alexius couldn't fulfil promises, power fell due to:
  • 1- Too closely associated w/crusaders: relied on their help to regain power during tour.
  • 2- Hostility between crusades/Constantinople e.g. crusaders started a fire so 15,000 fleed.
  • 3- Diplomatic relations between crusaders/BE brokedown- crusader embassy threw out.
  • 4- Rise of Alexius Dukas who was promoted to Chamberlain by Alexius IV; became an anti-western figurehead in Constantinople- could overthrow Alexius/be emperor Alexius V.

The effects of Alexius IV's fall

  • 1204 Alexius murdered and Isaac died, crusade reached an impasse because:
  • 1- Crusaders were about to break another deadline.
  • 2- Lack of provisions- Alexius V didn't continue giving crusaders provisions like Alexius IV did.
  • 3- Aggression of Alexius V- ambushed Henry of Flander's troops outside Constantinople.
  • 4- Failed negotiations- Alexius wanted crusaders to leave/Dandolo wanted resources 
186 of 188

5. Prince Alexius' failure to keep promises: cause

The sack of Constantinople and its signifance 

Preparations for the attack

  • Leaders met to prepare pre-attack agreement to ensure unity after attack, terms of March pact:
  • 1- Money: Venetians to take most of booty until debt of 200,000 was settled, rest was split fairly.
  • 2- Leadership: new emperor to replace Aleixus V to be chosen by 12 electors w/less power.
  • 3- Former BE: remaining 3/4 divided into various titles/fiefdoms for Ventians/crusaders.
  • This ensured crusaders/Venetians remained united, helped replenish funds/resources.
  • Helped galvanise a force of 20,000 alongside Venetians and evacuees of Constantinople.
  • BUT: all signatories of pact had to stay in Constantinople for another year= more delay.

The attack and sack of Constantinople

  • Alexius escaped which started a 3-day raid of the city by invaders.
  • Looted money/precious metals and did a city-wide furtum sacrum: relics
187 of 188

Prince Alexius' failure to keep promises: cause

Effects of sack of Constantinople 

  • 1- 300,000 marks from treasury split between Venetians/crusaders (settled debt)
  • 2- 10,000 horses to help crusades who lost many during years of foraging.
  • Crusade replenished but theft of city's relics poisoned relations between BE and westerners.
  • Made reuinfication of East and West churchers harder due to scale of furtum sacrum.
  • New patriarch of Constantinople struggled to get clergy to submit to Pope of Rome.

The establishment of Romania 

  • Crusaders had to:
  • 1- Elect new emperor: Baldwin of Flanders/Boniface were chief contenders, Baldwin wins.
  • 2- Divide BE land: led to military conflict between Baldwin and Boniface.
  • 3- Tackle external threats from former rules like Alexius III and Alexius V.
  • Mid 1205; most abandoned plans to go to Outremer, 7,000 westerners went back to EU.
  • Peter declares crusade over; absolved them of vow without Pope's consent in Constatinople.
  • His action was a practical move, couldn't have restarted crusade despite Pope's desires.
188 of 188


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all The crusades resources »