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AS Geography: Population Revision Notes

Key terms
Birth rate: the number of people born in a country each year per thousand of the population

Death rates: the number of deaths in a country per year per 1000 of the population

Natural change: the difference between the birth and death rate,…

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Population density: the number of people in an area. The density of the population is obtained by
dividing the total population of a country by the total area of that country.

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There are two main factors affecting the population of a country:
Natural change

Causes of population growth
Levels of care for the elderly
Availability of a radio and other forms of media communications
Clean water supply

Religious attitudes to birth control
Status gain from having children

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Life expectancy
Migration rate
Population density

Factors affecting fertility rates:

Global death rates:
North America:
Rise in sedentary lifestyles
Lifestyles of drinking/smoking
Consumption of fatty foods leading to CHD

Russia/Ukraine highest for mortality in Europe (16 deaths/1000)
Also high are Bulgaria, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia
Ageing populations
Health care…

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The Demographic Transition Model (DTM)
This describes how the population of a country changes over time, through five stages. It gives
changes in birth and death rates and total population.

Stage 1: High Stage 2: Early Stage 3: Late Stage 4: Low Stage 5: Decline
fluctuating expanding expanding fluctuating

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- high infant - increased - increased
mortality rate personal wealth acceptance of same
- children seen as - compulsory sex relationships
economic asset schooling making - a rise in the concept
- cultural factors children more of childlessness
e.g. religion expensive - the death rate may
- lower infant…

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Population change linked to Some countries have forced
industrialisation and the themselves to enter stage 3
resulting economic growth through political decisions
In some cases, much larger
base populations so the
impact of high population
growth in stage 2 and the
early part of stage 3 has been
far greater…

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follow the predictions of the DTM, which indicates the birth rate will decrease in this stage due to
various other factors such as greater access to education for women, but not government

5) Does not take into account the impact of migration.
Example: the USA does not follow the…





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