- Created by: Kars123
- Created on: 04-10-20 18:33
Hurricane Katrina - August 2005
Mostly in New Orleans
Death Toll: 1800
Economic Cost: $100 Billion
Category : 3
Preparation - Able to forecast - leading to 80% evacuation = some couldn't so they went to the Superdome.
Effects - Levees broke, houses destroyed, 80% of the city flooded
Response - Superdome people had been trapped with very limiting supplies of food and water. The Federal Emergency Management Agency ( FEMA) was unprepared for the scale of destruction and couldn't cope with the number of people needing help. Levees made higher and stronger. Lake Borgner surge barrier build around New Orleans - biggest in the world
People who were worst affected were the people in the poorest regions with no cars, making it harder to evacuate.
Cyclone Nargis - May 2008
Myanmar - 138000 deaths
Category - 5
Tracked by weather forecasters in India and Bangladesh
No evacuation procedures and no defenses against storm surges. Houses were very weak Impacts - $10 bil damage. The majority lost income after rice fields flooded, 75% of buildings collapsed. Many children orphaned
The military didn't want foreign aid to destabilize political oppression. Food supplies were given after a whole week.
Improvements - International aid organisations build stronger buildings: homes, hospitals, schools. New sanitation systems - raised up above likely flood levels. Local communities give mobile phones to relay cyclone warnings. Government build 20 cyclone shelters, each for 200 people
Tohoku Earthquake - Japan
Date - March 2011
Magnitude - 9
Caused aftershocks and tsunami
Death toll primary - 1000 and more
Death toll secondary - over 17000
Primary Impacts - Buildings severely damaged, Electric power and water sewage system disrupted, Liquefaction of land ( ground turned into liquid ) more than 1000 buildings were damaged
Secondary impacts - VAst majority of deaths ( over 17000) - people drowning in the tsunami - more than half aged 65 or over. 5000 more people were injured or missing. Over 127000 buildings collapsed. More than 2000 roads, 56 bridges destroyed. Fukushima dam burst, earthquake cut the main power to several nuclear power stations. Tsunami waves damaged the back-up generator, causing a nuclear meltdown. $300 billion
Response to Japan
Advanced warnings gave time for evacuation
Pacific Tsunami Warning Center warned coastal communities. Gov requested international aid. Rescue efforts delayed to disruption of roads and communication.
More than 130000 people displaced with many in shelters with limited supplies of food and water. Further 140000 people evacuated due to power plant
Long term - Honshu' transportation and communication services were partially restored.
Power supply to took longer to bring online, reducing manufacturing and business output - reducing the economy .
Reducing the impact of earthquakes - Emergency services trained and ready to respond. School students and workers take part in National Disaster Prevention Day ( 1st Sept) - drilled to what to do in an event of an earthquake or tsunami.
Buildings were built with strict code: Cross bracing diagonal steel beams for strength , Automatic windows shutter to prevent falling glass , Fire-resistant materials ,Deep foundations and wide base for stability , Roads for quick access for emergency services
Haiti Earthquake - January 2010 - Mag 7
Primary impacts -316000 deaths, 1.5 mil homeless.
People were forced into living in squatter camps with limited supplies of food and water
Eight hospitals collapsed, 5000 schools damaged, 196 mil cubic meters of rubble and debris. 4000 inmates escaped.
Port damaged = hindered emergency efforts and supply of aid.
Electricity, water, sanitation, and communications were badly disrupted or destroyed.
Secondary impacts - Cholera spread through squatter camps causing more deaths, provided little protection during hurricane season.
With factories closed and tourism was also stopped due to airport control tower collapsed, economic losses increased, asking for more debts which became even difficult to pay for.
Looting and crimes increase rapidly as the government and police force collapsed causing chaos
Response and Management of Haiti
Poorest country - unprepared for an event like this so the response was terrible. International aid flow in as search and rescue teams to help many people who were trapped by the collapsed buildings
Food medical supplies brought from the USA. American engineers cleared the port so ships give aid. UN and US troops provided security to maintain law and order.
UK's Disasters Emergency committee raised more than £100 million to provide emergency shelters, medication, water, purification tablets, and sanitation.
Longer-term response - Government moved 235000 people from Port - au Prince to less damaged cities
Three-quarters od damaged buildings were inspected and repaired 200000 people paid for or received food for public work - removing rubble
Money pledged by the world, 300 mil euros, $ 100 million from the USA, £20 million from Uk, World Bank cancelled Haiti debt for 5 years.
Cholera epidemic 10 months after - 8000 people killed, 6% of Haitians affected