Building Socialism in the Countryside

Notes on how Stalin created socialism and collectivisation in the countryside.




Liquidisation of Kulaks


The Twenty-five thousand

"Dizzy with success"

Not hugel;t indepth, mostly created to use for key information in order to remind ( If i have missed any details or information it is mots likely to be due to the fact that it is on another slide/ piece of revision notes I have done on bmy account :) e.g. there is a mindmap on collectivisation I have done/in the process of doing) :)

Hope it's useful

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  • Created by: Dracupine
  • Created on: 20-03-13 15:01

In order to...

  • Transform Russia into industrial country from agrarian Modernisation
  • State would command the economy from above
  • Gosplan.........central planning agency
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Collectivisation & Industrialisation

Process aimed at reforming Russian agriculture

Ttraditionally peasants worked on small farms with limited technology. Stalin planned to merge farms into 'collective' farms

  • Easier to control
  • Share machinery
  • Combined work force
  • More efficient

State provided tractors & fertilisers, modernising production

HOWEVER the Ukrane Famine occured

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Why Collectivisation?

  • Solved food shortage (Harvest of 1927 poor)
  • 'Grain Procurement' used to try and increase grain production
  • Raise money for industrialisation -------- grain surpluses sold abroad
  •  Destroy politocal rivalry---Collectivisation & contribute to industrialisation more appealing than Bukharin's right-wing policies

Grain Procurement 

Under NEP (New Economic Policy) governemtn bought grain from peasants on free market

Poor harvest = forced price raise of grain

Kulaks - started to withhold grain to push prices higher

Stalin used Kulaks as an excuse to revive Grain pricurement in 1928

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Emergency Measures

  • What did Stalin and the Government iniciate in 1929?

The Government started to relinquish meat in spring 1929, and revisited article 61 of the criminal code,  giving police powers to send Kulaks to labour camps for up to 2 years for "failure to carry out general state instructions"

Winter 1928-1929, Stalin reintroduced rationing in the cities and the state resumed grain requisitioning

Article 107 of the servial criminal code= punished for grain hordin

Stalin rewarded poorer peasants if they informed him of Kulaks, giving them part of their lands as a reward. 

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Liquidation of the Kulaks

Majority of peasants rebelled by destroying grain and livestock rather than surrender it to collective farms. 

18 million horses

100 million sheep & goats

destroyed between 1929 and 1933

Kulaks also destroyed machinery rather than allow communists to have it. 

Peasants resented collectivisation because it meant a loss of independence and significant financial resources

It was significant that Stalin gave instructions to liquidate the Kulaks as a class, 

  • firstly dekulakisation marked the end of Capitalisation and independences
  • secondly, increased speed of collectivisation
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the twenty-five thousand

Stalin aimed to stop local communists being unhappy by issuing a degree by sending 25 thousand socialy conscious industial workers into the countryside. 

Over 27 thousand workers volenteered for the service (veeeery popular :)

In reality the 25 thousanders were to face dekulakisation, they were expected to find hordes of grain and hand them in/ confiscate them, round the Kulaks up and order their exile and organise others into collective farming. 

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Dizzy with Success

the policy of collectivisation caused suffering for Kulaks as they were herded into cattle trucks and exiled to Siberis or shot. 

In Siberia those who survived the trip were imprisoned in forced labour camps run by the Secret Police

10's of thousands died of disease and hunger

Agricultural chaos as:

slaughter of livestock,

destoyed tractors,

burnt crops and grain

This caused a surge of hostility towards the government

March 1930, 1/2 Russia's farms were collectivised. 

By August 1/4 Russia's farming collectivised due to huge amount being exiled, shot or sent to labour camps (Gulags)

Consequently haulting collectivisation

Stalin published article 'Dizzy with Success' stating how local officials had "gone too far" reverting the blame away from himself. 

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Collectivisation once again  resumed in 1931

led to famine

Estimated 17million died

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