In order to...
- Transform Russia into industrial country from agrarian Modernisation
- State would command the economy from above
- Gosplan.........central planning agency
Collectivisation & Industrialisation
Process aimed at reforming Russian agriculture
Ttraditionally peasants worked on small farms with limited technology. Stalin planned to merge farms into 'collective' farms
- Easier to control
- Share machinery
- Combined work force
- More efficient
State provided tractors & fertilisers, modernising production
HOWEVER the Ukrane Famine occured
- Solved food shortage (Harvest of 1927 poor)
- 'Grain Procurement' used to try and increase grain production
- Raise money for industrialisation -------- grain surpluses sold abroad
- Destroy politocal rivalry---Collectivisation & contribute to industrialisation more appealing than Bukharin's right-wing policies
Under NEP (New Economic Policy) governemtn bought grain from peasants on free market
Poor harvest = forced price raise of grain
Kulaks - started to withhold grain to push prices higher
Stalin used Kulaks as an excuse to revive Grain pricurement in 1928
- What did Stalin and the Government iniciate in 1929?
The Government started to relinquish meat in spring 1929, and revisited article 61 of the criminal code, giving police powers to send Kulaks to labour camps for up to 2 years for "failure to carry out general state instructions"
Winter 1928-1929, Stalin reintroduced rationing in the cities and the state resumed grain requisitioning
Article 107 of the servial criminal code= punished for grain hordin
Stalin rewarded poorer peasants if they informed him of Kulaks, giving them part of their lands as a reward.
Liquidation of the Kulaks
Majority of peasants rebelled by destroying grain and livestock rather than surrender it to collective farms.
18 million horses
100 million sheep & goats
destroyed between 1929 and 1933
Kulaks also destroyed machinery rather than allow communists to have it.
Peasants resented collectivisation because it meant a loss of independence and significant financial resources
It was significant that Stalin gave instructions to liquidate the Kulaks as a class,
- firstly dekulakisation marked the end of Capitalisation and independences
- secondly, increased speed of collectivisation
the twenty-five thousand
Stalin aimed to stop local communists being unhappy by issuing a degree by sending 25 thousand socialy conscious industial workers into the countryside.
Over 27 thousand workers volenteered for the service (veeeery popular :)
In reality the 25 thousanders were to face dekulakisation, they were expected to find hordes of grain and hand them in/ confiscate them, round the Kulaks up and order their exile and organise others into collective farming.
Dizzy with Success
the policy of collectivisation caused suffering for Kulaks as they were herded into cattle trucks and exiled to Siberis or shot.
In Siberia those who survived the trip were imprisoned in forced labour camps run by the Secret Police
10's of thousands died of disease and hunger
Agricultural chaos as:
slaughter of livestock,
burnt crops and grain
This caused a surge of hostility towards the government
March 1930, 1/2 Russia's farms were collectivised.
By August 1/4 Russia's farming collectivised due to huge amount being exiled, shot or sent to labour camps (Gulags)
Consequently haulting collectivisation
Stalin published article 'Dizzy with Success' stating how local officials had "gone too far" reverting the blame away from himself.
Collectivisation once again resumed in 1931
led to famine
Estimated 17million died