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Causes of the Russo-Japanese War
· Territorial expansion was traditional Russian policy
· Japan was expanding at the expense of China. The Great
Powers became alarmed and forced Japan to give Port
Arthur to Russia
· A successful Russian war against China in 1903 convinced
the Russian government that they could defeat any oriental
enemy
· The Tsar hated the Japanese and wasn't prepared to
negotiate with them
· There were industrial strikes and peasant disturbances in
Russia. Plehve (Minister of the Interior) convinced the Tsar
that a war would unite Russia and distract them from the
unrest.
· Korea and Manchuria crisis…read more

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The Effect of the War on Russia
· Russia was humiliated ­ they had presumed
they could win the war but were defeated
· They began to spend money on the military
and building more railways
· It caused discontent and failed to stop strikes
and peasant disturbances and failed to unite
people
· They held the Tsar responsible for the defeat…read more

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Causes of the 1905 Revolution
· Worker dissatisfaction with social, economic
and political conditions - greater demands on
workers' output
· Liberal dissatisfaction with the autocracy
· National minorities e.g. The Poles wanted
independence
· Wave of strikes occuring in St Petersburg and
Moscow
· Bloody Sunday ­ 9th Jan 1905…read more

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Reasons for the October Manifesto
· Threat to regime from 1905 revolution
· Dissatisfaction with living and working conditions
· Failure of autocracy to reform
· Revolutionary activity
· Desire of middle class and liberals for
constitutional government
· Witte's persuasion
· Doubts of reliability of army after war with Japan
· Communications breaking down
· Collapsing of economic and financial system…read more

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Reactions to Manifesto
· Initial reaction was public optimism and rejoicing
· Moderate liberals accepted it and sought to work with the
Tsar to make the new Dumas a success. These were the
Octobrists
· The left wing liberals were less convinced. These were the
Kadets
· Not all workers and peasants were appeased by it
· General Strike in St Petersburg in November
· Bolsheviks led an uprising in Moscow in December
· Peasants in the countryside saw it as an opportunity to
seize land that they believed was rightfully theirs ­ increase
in peasant risings
· Troubles in army and navy and mutinies increased
· By November, 10 out of 19 of the largest cities were out of
control and outbreaks of mutiny continued…read more

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