Biology Reproduction in Plants

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Reproduction in Plants

Plants reproduce ASEXUALLY. Only one parent is needed in asexual reproduction, and the offspring produced are genetically identical

The advantages of asexual reproduction include:

  • population can increase rapidly
  • can exploit a suitable habitat quickly

The disadvantages include:

  • does not lead to variation in a population
  • the species may only be suited to one habitat
  • disease may affect all the individuals in a population
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Reproduction in plants 2

Stigma - Receives pollen grains

Anther- produces pollen grains

Ovary - Protects the flower bud and can carry out photosynthesis

Sepal - Protects the ovule

Carpel - The female part of the flower

Stamen - The male part of the flower 

Style - Supports Stigma

Filament - Supports Anther

Petal - Attracts insects by scent, colour, acts as an insect guide and produces nectar

Ovule - Becomes the seed after fertilisation

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Reproduction in plants 3

Insect pollinated plants and wind pollinated plants. Insect pollinated plants are large and brightly coloured to attract insects. They are usually scented and have nectar. The number of pollen grains is moderate as insects transfer them efficiently. The pollen grains are sticky or spiky so that they also stick to the insects. The anthers are inside the flower, stiff and firmly attached to brush against insects. The stigma are inside the flower and are sticky to that pollen grains stick to them when an insect brushes past. Wind pollinated flowers are small and often dull green or brown as no need to attract insects. They have no scent or nectar. There are large amounts of pollen grain as most are not transferred to another flower. The pollen grains are smooth and light, so are easily carried by the wind without clumping together. The anthers are outside the flower, loose on long filaments to release pollen grains easily. The stigma are outisde the flower and are feathery. They form a network to catch drifting pollen grains. (http://a.files.bbci.co.uk/bam/live/content/zc8pb9q/large)

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Reproduction in plants 4

Germination

A seed has three main parts:

  • embryo – the young root and shoot that will become the adult plant
  • food store – starch for the young plant to use until it is able to carry out photosynthesis
  • seed coat – a tough protective outer covering

Component parts of fertilised ovule as it turns into seed. Seed coat around outside, large food store in the middle. Embryo of new plant beginning to grow within seed coat. (http://a.files.bbci.co.uk/bam/live/content/zhp4q6f/small)Germination is a process, controlled by enzymes, in which the seed begins to develop into a new young plant. Three main factors are needed for successful germination.

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