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1.List and describe the characteristics of living things. 2.Define the terms
Movement,Respiration,Sensitivity,Nutrition,Excretion,Reproduction,Growth
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3.Relate the structures seen under the light microscope in the plant cell and animal cell to their functions.
Cytoplasm, Membrane, Nucleus ,Cell wall, Sap vacuole ,Chloroplast
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4.Define Diffusion
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration down a concentration gradient, as a result of their random movement.
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5.Define Osmosis
Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane.
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6.Describe what happen to a plant and animal cell when put into pure water
When placed in pure water, plant and animal cells will take in the water by osmosis.This is because there is a higher concentration of water molecules outside the cell than inside it.Plants become turgid (cell wall) animal cell burst( no cell wall)
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7.What happens when there is a higher concentration of salts and sugars on the outside of the cell and how will this affect the plant and animal cell?
. This is because there is a higher concentration of water molecules inside the cell than outside it;  Plant cells become flaccid and the cytoplasm is no longer pressed against the cell wall.Animal cells also become flaccid but become crenated
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8.Define enzymes
proteins that function as biological catalysts – they speed up chemical reactions but are themselves unchanged. Their action relies on their shape, as their substrate molecule (s) fit into their active site as in the lock & key hypothesis:
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9.Explain the affect on a enzyme when temp. increases?
As temperature increases, the chance of chance of substrate molecules and enzymes colliding also increases, so the rate of reaction goes up.This continues to an optimum temperature for an enzyme. Human enzymes the optimum temp 50
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10.What happens to the enzyme when the temperature is to high?
Above this temperature, the bonds holding the enzyme together start to break so it changes shape .This deforms the active site, so enzyme and substrate cannot fit together – the enzyme has been denatured. Most enzymes denature above 50.
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11. What is the ph level for enzymes and when do the become denatured?
Most human enzymes have an optimum pH of 7 (neutral). Extreme of pH affect the shape of enzymes, denaturing them.
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12. Define nutrient
taking in of nutrients which are organic substances & mineral ions (containing raw materials or energy for growth & tissue repair), absorbing & assimilating them.
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23.State the functions and components of blood.( cards only have components)
red blood cell, white blood cells, platelets and plasma
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24. Define respiration
The chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy.
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25.State the uses of energy in the body of humans
1.Muscle contraction;  2.Protein synthesis;  3.Cell division;  4.Growth;  5.The passage of nerve impulses;  6.Maintenance of a constant body temperature.
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26. Define aerobic respiration
The release of a relatively large amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen.
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27. Define anaerobic respiration
The release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen.
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28. Chemical and word equation for aerobic respiration
Glucose + Oxygen= Carbon dioxide + Water C6H12O6 + 6O2 =6CO2 + 6H2O
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29. Chemical and word equation for anaerobic respiration
Glucose=Lactic acid
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30. Describe the effect of lactic acid in muscles during exercise (include oxygen debt - outline only)
31 Describe the role of anaerobic respiration in yeast during brewing and bread-making.
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32.List the features of gas exchange surfaces in animals.
33.Describe the effects of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, smoke particles) on the gas exchange system.
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34.Define inheritance
The transmission of genetic information from generation to generation.
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35. Define the terms Chromosome,gene and allel
Chromosome as a thread of DNA, made up of a string of genes. Gene as a length of DNA that is the unit of heredity and codes for a specific protein. A gene may be copied and passed on to the next generation.Allele is two or more copies of genes
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36.Define the terms Haploid and Diploid
. Haploid nucleus as a nucleus containing a single set of unpaired chromosomes (e.g. sperm and egg). Diploid nucleus as a nucleus containing two sets of chromosomes (e.g. in body cells).
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37.Define mitosis
As nuclear division giving rise to genetically identical cells in which the chromosome number is maintained by the exact duplication of chromosomes.
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41.Define natural selection
As the greater chance of passing on of genes by the best-adapted organisms.
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43.Define food chain
- a chart showing the flow of energy (food) from one organism to the next beginning with a producer
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44.Define food web
- a network of interconnected food chains showing the energy flow through part of an ecosystem.
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45.Define producer
- an organism that makes its own organic nutrients, usually using energy from sunlight, through photosynthesis.
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46.Define consumer, herbivore and carnivore
d. Consumer - an organism that gets its energy by feeding on other organisms. e. Herbivore - an animal that gets its energy by eating plants. f. Carnivore - an animal that gets its energy by eating other animals.
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48.Define the terms decomposer, ecosystem and tropic level
Decomposer - an organism that gets its energy from dead or waste organic matter.Ecosystem - a unit containing all of the organisms and their environment, interacting together, in a given area. Trophic level-the position of an organism in a food chain
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49.Describe the carbon cycle
50.Describe the undesirable effects of overuse of fertilisers (to include eutrophication of lakes and rivers).
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51.Describe the undesirable effects of pollution to include: water pollution by sewage and chemical waste, air pollution by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide & methane) contributing to global warming.
52.Discuss the causes and effects on the environment of acid rain, and the measures that might be taken to reduce its incidence.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Cytoplasm, Membrane, Nucleus ,Cell wall, Sap vacuole ,Chloroplast

Back

3.Relate the structures seen under the light microscope in the plant cell and animal cell to their functions.

Card 3

Front

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration down a concentration gradient, as a result of their random movement.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

When placed in pure water, plant and animal cells will take in the water by osmosis.This is because there is a higher concentration of water molecules outside the cell than inside it.Plants become turgid (cell wall) animal cell burst( no cell wall)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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