Name the 8 life processes
nutrition, excretion, sensitivity, movement, growth, respiration, reproduction, homeostasis
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Animal cells have....
Cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and mitochondria
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Plant cells have....
Cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, vacuole
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Enzymes are...
Biological catalysts in metabolic reactions. They do not get used up themselves. The are proteins.
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what is the name for respiration without oxygen?
anaerobic respiration
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equations for anaerobic respiration
ANIMALS: Glucose - lactic acid (+ some energy) PLANTS: Glucose - ethanol + carbon dioxide (+some energy)
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What is the name for respiration with oxygen?
aerobic respiration
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Equations for aerobic respiration
ANIMALS AND PLANTS: Glucose + Oxygen -- CO2 + Water (+ some energy)
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Net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. It takes places down a concentration gradient and is a passive process (it does not use energy)
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The movement of water particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a partially permeable membrane, down a concentration gradient - it is a passive process and does not use energy
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Active transport
The movement of particles against a concentration gradient across a selectively permeable membrane.
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Cell size order (from small to big)
organelles - cell - tissue - organ - organ system
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Name the five Kingdoms
Plants, animals, fungi , protoctists, bacteria, viruses
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nasal passages
warm, clean, and add moisture to the ari
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stops food getting into lungs when you swallow
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carries food to the stomach
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voice box
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tube with incomplete rings of cartilage carries air to lungs; lined with cells making mucus, and cells with cilia which move the mucus aways from the lungs
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left bronchus
carries air to lung
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carry air to lungs
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tiny air sacs adapted for gaseous exchange
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sheet of muscle with a fibrous middle part which is domed; it helps make breathing movements and separates the thorax from the abdomen
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bones that protect and ventilate lungs
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internal intercostal muscles
pull ribs down and in when you breathe out
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external intercostal muscles
pulls ribs up and out when you breathe in
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pleural membranes
thin moist membranes forming an airtight seal around lungs and separating inside of thorax from lungs
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pleural fluid
liquid filling pleural cavity and acting as lubrication, so surfaces of lungs do not stick to inside of chest wall
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eukaryotic cells
have a nucleus and distinct DNA
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contain: Hydrogen, Carbon and Oxygen made of monosaccharides (glucose/ fructose). They enzyme is amylase. Benedict's solution: pale blue + heat - red. IODINE solution: olive brown - blue black
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contain: Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen made of glycerol and 3 fatty acids. Enzyme - lipase
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contain: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, small units are fatty acids. Enzyme: protease, pepsin and trips
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Vitamin A in the body
makes chemicals in the retina, protects surface of eye and connective tissue FOUND IN fish liver oils, liver, butter
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Vitamin C in the body
sticks together cells lining surfaces in the body e.g.. mouth FOUND IN: fresh fruits and vegetables
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Vitamin D in the body
helps bones absorb calcium and phosphorus FOUND IN sunlight, fish liver oils
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makes bones and teeth FOUND IN dairy products, fish and bread
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makes haemoglobin in red blood cells to carry oxygen FOUND IN red meat, eggs, green leafy vegetables
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Carbohydrase eg. amylase, maltase (found/ act on/ breakdown products)
salivary glands, pancreas, small intestine/ starch/ glucose
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Protease eg. pepsin, tripsin (found/ act on/ breakdown products)
stomach, pancreas, SI / protein/ amino acids
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lipase (found/ act on/ breakdown products)
pancreas, SI / lipids (fatty acids and oils) / fatty acids and glycerol
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the products of digestion are absorbed into your bloodstream in the SI
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The digested food products are absorbed into the body's cells and are assimilated. Used for energy to build up into chemicals needed by the cells
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Water, undigested food, enzymes, dead cells move through the LI and water is removed. The remaining waste product is passed out of the anus as faeces.
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yellow liquid, which transports dissolved food molecules, carbon dioxide and urea as well as all the blood cells.
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Red blood cells
NO NUCLEUS, biconcave, contain haemoglobin and transport oxygen
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White blood cells (lymphocytes)
produce antibodies to destroy microorganisms and memory lymphocytes give us immunity to specific diseases.
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White blood cells (phagocytes)
engulf and digest microorganisms
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Reflex arc
stimulus - receptor - coordination - effector - response
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In bright light the eye.... to let less light into the eye
ciliary mucles contract the iris gets bigger and the pupil gets smaller
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In dim light the eye.... to let more light into the eye
radial muscles contract, the iris gets smaller and the pupil gets bigger
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When looking at close objects the eye...
ciliary muscles contract, suspensory ligaments go slack, the lens goes spherical and fat
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when looking at distant objects the eye...
ciliary muscles relax, suspensory ligaments contract, the lens goes thin and more flat
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Pituitary gland (hormone and function)
ADH - controls the water content of the blood by its effect on the kidneys
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insulin and glucagon - lower and raise blood glucose levels
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Adrenal glands
Adrenaline - prepares the body for stressful or physically active situations - 'fight or flight'
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oestrogen and progesterone - controls development of female secondary sexual characteristics regulates menstrual cycle
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Testosterone - controls development of male secondary sex characteristics involved in sperm production
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Photosynthesis - EQUATION
6CO2 + 6H20 - C6H12O6 + 602
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tissue made up of the cell walls of dead cells. It transports water and mineral ions up from the roots to the rest of the plant
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tissue is made up of living cells. It transports sugars for energy and amino acids for cell building all around the plant.
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directional responses by plants to stimuli from their environment.
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responses to light coming rom one direction
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responses of plants to gravity
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distinct system of organisms interacting with each other and with their physical environment
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A population
all of the organisms of a particular species living in an ecosystem at a particular time
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all the populations of living organisms living in an ecosystem at a particular time
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place where specific organisms live
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used to sample the distribution of organisms in their habitats
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How much available energy is passed from one trophic level to the next?
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form of a gene
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Form of DNA structure which consists of two chromatids
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situation where a pair of different alleles of a gene control a characteristic and neither has a stronger effect than the other
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An allele of a gene whose effects are seen in the characteristics of an organism even when ofter alleles of that gene are present
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a region of DNA that codes for a specific characteristic
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Cell division that produces four non- identical daughter cells. Used for the production of gametes. Have the haploid number of chromosomes
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Cell division that produces two genetically identical daughter cells. Used for growth, repair and asexual reproduction
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A rare, and random change in the genes of a cell by the adding, taking away or swapping of a base letter.
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characteristic will only show up if both alleles are inherited
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characteristic will show up even if only one allele is inherited
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both alleles are the same
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alleles are different
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describes the physical characteristics of an organism
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describes the alleles that a cell or organism has
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neither allele is dominant and both contribute to the appearance of the organism
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Barley seeds germinate. Make amylase to digest starch. Killed and dried to make malt. Ground up and mixed with water in mash tun. Amylase breaks down starch to maltose. Mash is boiled and filtered. Hops added for taste yeast added to ferment sugars.
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BEER MAKING STAGES PART 2 (from centrifuged)
Beer is centrifuged, filtered and sometimes pasteurised. Put into caskets or barrels
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Milk is pasteurised 85-95.c for 15-30 mins. Milk is homogenised. Cooled to 40-45 and inoculated with a starter culture of lactic acid bacteria. Incubated for several hours, bacteria digest milk proteins and ferment lactose to lactic acid. Stirred.
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stirred and cooled to 5. Flavourings, colourings and fruit may be added.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and mitochondria


Animal cells have....

Card 3


Cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, vacuole


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Card 4


Biological catalysts in metabolic reactions. They do not get used up themselves. The are proteins.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


anaerobic respiration


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