• Created by: Anna
  • Created on: 09-01-13 20:04
site of chemical reactions in the cell
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cell membrane
controls what enters and leaves the cell (selectively permeable)
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contains nucleic acids which code for the synthesis of specific proteins which control all the activity in the cell
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site of respiration
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site of photosynthesis
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cell wall
made from cellulose, it strengthens the cell and allows it to become turgid
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sap vacuole
contains cell sap and acts as a store of water or sugars or waste products that need to be excreted
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How do you test for lipids?
emulsion test
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How do you test for proteins?
Biuret test
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How do you test for starch?
Iodine solution
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How do you test for glucose?
Benedict's test
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Function of Lipids
Used as long term energy store because they're much easier to store than carbohydrates and are used for protection and insulation
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Function of carbohydrates
used in respiration to provide energy
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Function of amino acids
broken down in to amino acids which body absorbs and makes in to new proteins which are used for growth and repair
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Function of fibre
regulates bowel movement, sloughs off old lining of intestine
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Function of water
solvent for chemical reactions, heat loss, transport
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Function of vitamins and minerals
function of some enzymes and proteins
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5 things about enzymes
proteins, biological catalysts, specific to one particular substrate, affected by temperature and pH, not used up in reactions
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the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration down the concentration gradient
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the movement of water molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration through a partially permeable membrane
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Active transport
the movement of molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration against the concentration gradient, energy is required for movement to occur
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What 4 things to plants use glucose for?
Respiration, stored as starch, turned in to cellulose, used to make fats and oils
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How is the cuticle adapted to photosynthesise?
stops leaf from losing water
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How is the epidermis adapted to photsynthesise?
Transparent protective layer that protects leaf which inhibiting photosynthesis
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How are the palisade cells adapted to photosynthesise?
full of chloroplasts and are long and thin so light has to pass through as many chloroplasts as possible
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How do air spaces help photosynthesis?
increase the surface area inside the leaf to maximise gas exchange across the surface of the cells in the Spongy layer (Mesophyll cells)
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How is the stoma adapted to photosynthesise?
allows exchange of Carbon dioxide and Oxygen
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How are the guard cells adapted to photosynthesise?
allow the stoma to open and close to stop the leaf losing too much water
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How is the xylem adapted to photosynthesise?
brings a steady supply of water to the leaf
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Why do plants need nitrates?
used to make amino acids for use in plant proteins
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Why do plants need magnesium?
forms part of the chlorophyll molecule
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Why do plants need potassium?
essential for cell membranes
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Why do plants need phosphorus?
essential part of DNA and cell membranes
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Function of Vitamin A
present in fish cheese and eggs forms part of the pigment in rods and cones that detects light. Lack can lead to blindness
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Function of Vitamin C
present in citrus fruit and forms part of collagen protein which makes up skin hair gums and bones. Lack cause scurvy
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Function of Vitamin D
present in fish but made naturally through sunlight helps growth of bones and lack causes rickets
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Function of calcium
present in milk cheese and dairy foods, essential for bone growth and muscles. Lack cause osteoporosis
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Function of Iron
present in red meat and some vegetables and is part of haemoglobin. Lack causes anaemia
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Mechanical Digestion
digestion by physically breaking food in to smaller pieces eg, mouth and teeth chewing food and stomach churning food
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Chemical Digestion
digestion using enzymes
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made in salivary glands, works in mouth, substrate is starch and produces maltose
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made in stomach cells, works in stomach, substrate is protein, produces amino acids
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Bile salts
made in liver, works in small intestine, substrate is fat, produces fat droplets
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Amylase, protease, lipase
made in pancreas, works in small intestine substrates starch protein and fat, produces maltose amino acids and glycerol and fatty acids
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Maltase and Protease
made in small intestine, works in small intestine, substrates are maltose and protein and produces glucose and amino acids
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taking food into the digestive system
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breaking food down into molecules small enough to be absorbed into the bloodstream
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taking molecules into the bloodstream which happens mainly in the small intestine
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using food molecules to build new molecules in our bodies
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removing unwanted food from the digestive system
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How does a thin wall help the adaptation of the small intestine?
speeds up the rate of diffusion of molecules
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How does a rich blood supply help the adaptation of the small intestine?
helps carry absorbed molecules away from the intestine quickly which means there is always a low concentration of food molecules in the blood which maintains a high concentration gradient
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How does the length of the intestine help its adaptation?
7m long which increases surface area
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How is the surface area adapted to help the small intestine?
villi and microvilli increase the surface area so rate of diffusion increases
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releases energy from food
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Anaerobic respiration
respiration without oxygen
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What does anaerobic respiration produce?
Lactic Acid
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How are air spaces adapted for gas exchange in leaves?
increase the surface area inside the lead to maximise gas exchange across the surface of the spongy mesophyll cells
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How is the stoma adapted for gas exchange in leaves?
allow exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen
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How are mesophyll cells adapted for gas exchange?
have large surface area and moist surfaces which speeds up gas exchange
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How is the leaf shape adapted for gas exchange?
thin which increases diffusion speed and leaves have very large surface are which also increases diffusion speed
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How is the stomata distribution adapted for gas exchange?
spread out over leaves which means waste gases produced by the leaf cab diffuse away quickly which stops the build up of excreted products which would slow gas exchange
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5 steps of breathing in
intercostal muscles contract pulling the ribcage forwards and out, diaphragm contracts moving down, volume of cavity increases, pressure in cavity decreases and air is drawn into the lungs to equalize the pressure
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5 steps of breathing out
intercostal muscles relax the ribcage moves inwards and down, diaphragm relaxes moving up, volume of cavity decreases, pressure in cavity increases and air leaves lungs to equalize the pressure
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4 ways the alveoli are adapted for gas exchange
alveolus is one cell thick, capillary wall is one cell think, alveoli have big surface area, alveoli wall is moist
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How tar affects lungs
blocks alveoli making gas exchange difficult and clogs up cilia
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How nicotine affects body
speeds up heart rate and damages artery walls leads to heart and vascular diseases and is also addictive
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How carcinogens affect body
damages DNA of alveoli cells leading them reproducing faster than normal which will cause a tumour the start of cancer
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How carbon monoxide affects body
attaches permanently to haemoglobin reducing the ability of blood to carry oxygen
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transports sucrose and amino acids up and down the stem
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transports water and minerals up the stem
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movement of water up a plant from the root up the stem and out of the leaves
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Transpiration in stem
water evaporates out of the top of the xylem, generating a low pressure at the top of the xylem, sucks water molecules up the xylem which is called the transpiration pull
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Transpiration in leaf
water enters leaf in xylem vessels, water moves by osmosis into leaf mesophyll cells where it evaporates into the air spaces and finally diffuses out of the stomata into the air
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Uptake of water in roots
Water enters root hair cells by osmosis.
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mostly water used for transporting things around the body
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red blood cells
adapted to carry oxygen around the body e.g smooth edges, biconcave shape which increases surfaces are and has no nucleus
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help clot blood stopping blood loss and prevents microorganisms entering the body
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Contraction in the heart right hand side
deoxygenated blood enters right atrium through vena cava which then contracts pumping blood through tricuspid valve into right ventricle which contracts to pump blood through semilunar valves in to pulmonary artery to the lungs
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Contraction in the heart left hand side
oxygenated blood enters left atrium though pulmonary vein which then contracts to pump blood through bicuspid valve in to the left ventricle which contracts pumping blood through semilunar valves in to the aorta which then pump blood around body
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5 points about artery
thick muscle layer to withstand high pressure blood, elastic tissue allows it to stretch when blood is force in, protective collagen layer, round shape, small lumen
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5 points about vein
thin muscle layer low pressure blood, valve to stop backflow, protective collagen layer, not a round shape, large lumen which decreases effect of pressure
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4 points about capillary
one cell thick, lumen same width as one RBC smaller diffusion distance, no muscle or elastic tissue, tiny
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renal artery
blood to kidneys
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renal vein
blood away from the kidneys
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the removal of waste products of metabolism from living organisms
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balancing the water level of the body
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when water is too low
hypothalamus detects, pituitary gland releases ADH into bloodstream, ADH travels around body, collecting duct becomes more permeable, water is draw out of collecting duct into blood, water levels normal
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the maintaining of a constant internal environment
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nervous system
immediate response to stimuli
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endocrine system
long term response to stimuli
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reflex arc
stimulus detected by receptor sending impulse to sensory neurone which passes to relay neurone in spine which passes to motor neurone which passes to effector muscle which carries out the response
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function of cornea
refracts light entering the eye
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function of iris
controls amount of light entering the eye by adjusting the size of pupil
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function of pupil
hole which allows light into eye
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function of lens
allows fine focusing by changing shape
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function of ciliary muscle
changes shape of lens by altering the tension on suspensory ligaments
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function of retina
contains light sensitive rod and cone cells which convert light into nerve impulse
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function of optic nerve
transmits nerve impulses to brain
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function of sclera
outer protective layer of eye
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how eye focuses on far object
ciliary muscles relax, suspensory ligaments tight, lens pulled thin, light is refracted less
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how eye focuses on near object
ciliary muscles contract, suspensory ligaments relax, lens become fat, light is refracted more
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pituitary gland, regulated blood osmolarity
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adrenal glands, increases heart rate and breathing rate during exercise and prepare for fight or flight
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pancreas, decreases blood glucose level
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testes, triggers puberty in boys
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ovaries, maintains uterus lining and causes menstruation
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ovaries, triggers puberty in girls stimulates growth of uterus lining and causes ovulation
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sexual reproduction
two gametes fuse to create offspring and involves two parents
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asexual reproduction
without fusion of gametes and involves only one parent
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function of petal
colourful to attract insects
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function of anther
male part which makes pollen
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function of filament
joins anther to rest of plant
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function of stigma
female part which receives pollen
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function of ovary
contains ovules
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function of ovule
female gamete
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function of pollen
male gamete
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function of nectary
makes nectar to attract insects
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function of sepal
protects flower when it is in bud
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does zygote divide by meiosis or mitosis?
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genetic code which determines the characteristic of a living thing in a double helix
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short section of DNA which codes for a specific protein
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curled up DNA
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Different form of a gene
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Haploid number
number of different chromosomes in a cell (23)
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Diploid number
total number of chromosomes in a cell (46)
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growth, repair and asexual reproduction. Produces to genetically identical daughter cells (G.I to parent cell)
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gametes for sexual reproduction. Produces 4 gametes which are genetically different to each other and parent cell.
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always affect the phenotype
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never affects the phenotype in the presence of a dominant allele
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affect the phenotype equally in the presence of another co-dominant allele
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physical appearance
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combination of alleles an individual possesses
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two different alleles in genotype
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the same alleles in genotype
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a rare random change in the genetic code of a gene
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formation of a new species from the original species
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all individuals of a particular species within a defined area
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group of different populations living in the same area
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physical, chemical and biological environment in which an organism lives
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community of living things and the environment in which they live
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decomposers in the nitrogen cycle
turn nitrogen in protein into ammonium
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denitrifying bacteria
turn ammonium in to nitrogen
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nitrifying bacteria
turn ammonium into nitrate
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nitrogen-fixing bacteria
turns nitrogen into ammonium
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Thymine pairs with....
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Guanine pairs with...
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selective breeding
individuals with desired characteristics are bred together to produce offspring which express both desired characteristics
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small pieces of plants grown in petri dish, samples of culture are taken off and grown separately
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cloning in animals
take embryonic cell, remove nucleus, replace with nucleus for adult cell (animal you want to clone) put into surrogate
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menstrual cycle
FSH makes a follicle to develop inside ovary, follicle produces oestrogen which stops FSH, makes lining, seceretes LH = ovulation, remains of follicle makes progesterone thickening lining
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cell membrane


controls what enters and leaves the cell (selectively permeable)

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