BIO unit 1

biology cards for unit 1


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  • Created by: Emma
  • Created on: 12-05-11 20:00


Lactose - glucouse + galatose [1,4]

Maltose - glucouse + glucouse [1,4]

Sucrose - glucouse + fructose [1,2 glycosidic bonds]

unsaturated lipids - double covalent bonds

saturated lipids - more hydrogen and no double covalent bonds

Joint together: condensation

Broken apart: Hydrolysis

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alpha glucose

1,4 and 1,6

engery storage in animals

compact and insoluble in water

easily broken/hydrolysed.


beta glucose, 1,4

not branched, has hydrogen bonds. hydrolysed by action of cellulaze enzymes.

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alpha glucose

amylopectin 30 percent

amylose 70 percent

1,4 and 1,6

food storage for plants

compact, insouble and easily broken/hydrolysed.

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Genetic screening and Therapy:

genetic screening is a technique used to determine the genotype or phenotype of an organism.


removing roughly 20cm of amniotic fluid from the fetus using a needle and syringe.

done in the 16th week of pregnancy

embryonic, fetal epitheial cells can be found in the fluid

the cells can be examined and the chromosomes looked at.

Amniocentesis has to be done late in the pregnancy, results are not available straight after the test. and it carries a 1 percent risk of spontaeous abortion.

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DIFFUSION: net passive movement of molecules. from a HIGH concentration to a LOW concentration. moving down a concentration graident. HIGH temperatures increase diffusion as well as: short distances, large surface areas and big concentration differences. this is ficks law.

FACILLIATED DIFFUSION: molecules move down a concentration graident. passing through a specfic carrier protein. like enzymes, each carrier has its own specfic shape. only allows one type of molecule. its passive and requires no engery.

OSMOSIS: a special type of diffusion, includes water. movement of solvent molecules from a region where they are at high concentration to a region where they are at lower concentration through a partially permeable membrane.

ACTIVE TRANSPORT: an engery demanding transfer. across as cell membrane, aganist a concentration graident. involves a carrier protein. engery provided by adenosine triphosphate. active transport is a one way system.

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