AS OCR Biology | F212 Module 1 - Carbohydrates (As part of Biological Molecules)

Thorough but straight to the point - A three page WordX Document on Carbohydrates (Biological Molecules) for AS Biology that are specific to Module 1 of the F212 Chapter in the OCR Biology Specification, from points (j) to (o), of which can be found on the OCR website. Enjoy, hope they're of use!

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Preview of AS OCR Biology | F212 Module 1 - Carbohydrates (As part of Biological Molecules)

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AS Biology Unit 2 | 2.1.1 Biological Molecules (j) ­ (o) [Carbohydrates] Dean Williams
(j) Carbohydrates are mostly complex molecules made up of Glucose molecules bonded
together in chains. These molecules of Glucose are of two different types: Alpha
Glucose
(-Glucose) and Beta Glucose (-Glucose).
Alpha Glucose is a ringed structure that has 6
Carbon atoms in each molecule with an OH
group on Carbon-1 that is below the plane of
the molecule.
(k) The structural difference between Alpha and Beta glucose is that in -Glucose, as seen
above, the OH group on Carbon-1 is below the plane of the molecule.
This is different to -Glucose: In -Glucose the OH
group on Carbon-1 is above the plane of the
molecule, which is the main structural difference
between the two.
(l) Formation of Glycosidic Bonds
Monosaccharide's are joined together by Glycosidic bonds which are formed by
Condensation reactions similar to peptide bonds between amino acids during formation of
Dipeptides and Polypeptides. The Hydrogen atom on the OH Group on one Glucose
molecule, whether Alpha or Beta Glucose, Bonds with an entire OH group on another
adjacent Glucose molecule forming and releasing water, and also forming a Glycosidic
Bond between the two glucose molecules.
Two Alpha Glucose molecules joined together form a Maltose sugar molecule. A
polysaccharide containing more than two Alpha Glucose molecules is an Amylose
sugar molecule which is used in Starch as energy storage for plants.

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AS Biology Unit 2 | 2.1.1 Biological Molecules (j) ­ (o) [Carbohydrates] Dean Williams
Breakage of Glycosidic Bonds
The breakage of Glycosidic Bonds between Alpha or Beta glucose Monosaccharide's in
Disaccharides and Polysaccharides is the reverse of the Condensation reaction that forms
the Glycosidic Bond. Instead of water being released from the Glucose molecules again, a
water molecule reacts with the Glycosidic Bond between two Glucose which breaks the
bond between them.…read more

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AS Biology Unit 2 | 2.1.1 Biological Molecules (j) ­ (o) [Carbohydrates] Dean Williams
Structure Starch is made of Amylose which is made
up of long chain Polypeptide of Alpha
Glucose molecules Glycosidically bonded
together at 1-4 linkage. Amylose is an
unbranched straight polypeptide chain that
has a coiled structure due to angles of
Glycosidic bonds which makes it compact
and suitable for storage of a high number
of Glucose molecules that are in excess.…read more

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AS Biology Unit 2 | 2.1.1 Biological Molecules (j) ­ (o) [Carbohydrates] Dean Williams
(n) Glycogen is used in animals as storage for excess glucose to be later hydrolysed
for Respiration. The structure of Glycogen is similar to the structure of the
polymer Amylopectin in Starch that is used for storage of glucose in plants in the
way that it contains branches off of its chains at 1-6 linkage.…read more

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