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Carbohydrates
Used for:

-Energy Storage (released form Glucose in respiration)

-Energy Source (such as starch)

-Structure (such as cellulose)

They contain Hydrogen, Carbon and Oxygen molecules.

General formula C(n) H(2)O(n)

The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharaides:

-3 to 6 Carbon atoms (most common are hexoses such as glucose and fructose)

-…

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GLUCOSE
AlphaGlucose

-Six Carbon atoms

-Found naturally in a ring structure

-OH found below plane of ring at first Carbon



BetaGlucose

-Six Carbon atoms

-Identical to alpha glucose with one exception

-The OH is found above the plane of the ring at the first
Carbon




The breaking down of glucose…

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Starch:theenergy-storagepolysaccharideinplants
-A mixture of long, straight amylose chains and branched amylopectin. (a-glucose)

-it is stored in chloroplasts and in membrane-bound starch grains.

-Is broken down to release glucose molecules, which are then respired.

Function: - branched structure allows it to be hydrolysed quickly, and takes up less
storage space.

-Does…

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Both described as energy-storage molecules
Both do not dissolve, so don't affect cell water potential, as glucose stored
freely in a cell would reduce water potential which would have negative
consequences.
They hold glucose in chains which can easily be broken off and hydrolysed for
a quick energy release.




Cellulose:mostabundantstructuralpolysaccharideinnature…

Page 5

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Polysaccharides Starch and glycogen Large molecules of
many a-glucose Energy storage.
molecules joined by Starch in plants,
condensation glycogen in animals
reactions. Insoluble and fungi.
in water, and form
grains/granules.
Cellulose Large molecules of
many B-glucose Structural, only
molecules joined by found in plant cell
condensation walls.
reactions. Insoluble
in…

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