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Topic 2- Membranes
Triglycerides Phospholipids
Triglycerides are a type of lipid. A phosphate group in place of 1 fatty acid chain.
They are made from glycerol and fatty acids. Polar hydrophilic head.
Glycerol- a small 3 carbon molecule with 3 OH groups. 2 non polar fatty acid tails.
Fatty acids-…

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Recognition proteins- glycoproteins that are involved in cell recognition e.g. A and B antigens in blood.
Structural proteins- on the inside surface of the cell and are attached to the cytoskeleton. Involved in maintaining/
changing the cell's shape.


Carbohydrates
Found on the outer surface of eukaryotic cell membranes.
Attached to…

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A solution is hypertonic if it has a lower water potential (more concentrated) than the cell.
A solution is hypotonic if it has a higher water potential (more dilute) than the cell.


Surrounding Solution Hypotonic Surrounding Solution Isotonic Surrounding Solution Hypertonic
Animal Net diffusion of water into cell- No net…

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The rate of facilitated diffusion increases as the concentration gradient increases but is limited by the number of carrier
proteins.
The rate of active transport is constantly high even when there is no concentration gradient across the membrane but it
stops if cellular respiration stops.


Fick's Law

Rate of Diffusion…

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