• Created by: hsn._13
  • Created on: 05-08-18 15:38
what are the two types of nitrogen containing bases
purine and pyrimidines
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what are the two types of polypeptide chains in a haemoglobin
alpha chains and beta chains
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properties of water
1.they are unusual and excellent solvent 2.has high surface tension 3.the water molecules are amphoteric
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what are the main functions of the blood?
1. transport digested food products 2.transport food molecules 3.transport excretory products 4.transport chemical messengers 5.helps o maintain steady body temperature
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whats the steps of blood clotting mechanism?
first the damaged tissues release platelets which releases thromboplastin, this catalyses the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin which inturn catalyses the conversion on fibrinogen to fibrin
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what are the 4 protein structures?
1.primary 2.secondary 3.tertiary 4.quaternary
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lifestyle factors which affect CVD
smoking, weight, exercise, stress and diet
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what are the types of epithelial tissues?
simple squamous, cuboidal, columnar, ciliated, glandular, compound stratified
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what are the phases of mitosis?
PROphase - Metaphase - Anaphase - Telophase
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what are the strategies/ways of asexual reproduction?
binary fission, producing spores, regeneration, budding, vegetative propagation, parthenogenesis
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what are the 3 aspects of growth?
1.cell division 2.assimilation 3.cell expansion
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what is Spermatogenesis and oogenesis?
Spermatogenesis isthe formation of sperms and oogenesis is the formation of ova
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what is the difference between micro- and megagametogenesis?
microgametogenesis produces pollen grain while megagametogeness produces ova in plants
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what changes happen in ovum to avoid polyspermy?
1. cortical granules release and form fertilisation membrane with zona pelusida 2. electrical charges in the ovum membrane changes
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methods of artificial fertilisation
1. In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) 2. artificial insemination
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properties of stem cells
they are totipotent and later change into pluripotent
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what are the sources of stem cells?
1. embryo stem cells 2. umbilical stem cells 3. adult stem cells 4. stem cell theraphy
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what are the stages of embryo development?
gametes - fertilization - zygote - blastomere - morular (16 cell stage) - blastular (32 cell stage) - gastula
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whats a malignant tumor?
its a tumor that invades surrounding tissues and metastasises
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the differences between starch and cellulose
in starch the monomer units are alpha-glucose and in cellulose they are beta-glucose and alpha-glucose. In cellulose the bonds are held together by 1,4-glycosidic bond while in starch 1,4-glycosidic bond and 1,6-glycosidic bond
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3 ways in which plants uptake water
symplast, apoplast and vacuolar pathway
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what are the symptoms of mineral deficiency in plants
nitrogen (older leaves turn yellow and die, growth is stunted) calcium (growing points die and younger leaves turn yellow and crinky) magnesium (yellow areas develop on the older leaves and growth slows down) phosphate (very dark green leaves)
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how is paper made?
wood is soaked in costic soda to produce a pulp consisting of cellulose and lignified cellulose fibres in water. Thin layers of pulp are then pressed onto frames and dried to form paper.
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types of bio plastic
1.cellulose based plastic 2.thermoplastic starch 3.polylactic acid (PLA) 4.poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)
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3 types of selections
1.directional selection 2.diversifying selection 3.balancing selection
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types of isolation
geographical, ecological, seasonal, behavioural, machanical isolation
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what are the two types of polypeptide chains in a haemoglobin


alpha chains and beta chains

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properties of water


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what are the main functions of the blood?


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whats the steps of blood clotting mechanism?


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