- the mind and the brain are the same.
- thought processes and behaviour cannot occur without the operation of the CNS, including the brain.
- an imbalance of the chemicals in the CNS can cause certain types of mental disorders such as bipolar disorder.
- human behaviour and thought processes have a biological basis and are influence by our genetic make-up and inheritance.
- human characteristics are due to our DNA and are innate.
- evolutionary change to our genes has helped us adapt our behaviour to the environment.
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- behaviour is learned through our experiences in the environment.
- psychology should be concerned with observable behaviour and the laws of learning. Internal mental processes cannot be studied.
- reinforcement strengthens a behaviour and punishment stops a behaviour reoccurring.
- the laws of learning are due to stimulus and behavioural responses.
- research carried out on animal behaviour can be generalised to human behaviour.
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Social Learning Theory
- individuals will imitate or copy behaviour they have seen rewarded in other people.
- individuals will not imitate or copy behaviour they have seen punished in others.
- vicarious reinforcement is when the observer has seen a behaviour rewarded or reinforced in another person. They then become more likely to copy the behaviour.
- vicarious reinforcement only happens through mediational processes.
- observational learning has four conditions:
Attention Retention Motor reproduction Motivation
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- our behaviour is determined by the mental processes that lie between stimulus and response. Only by studying these can we understand why people behave as they do.
- assumes internal mental processes can be studied in an objective, scientific way using carefully controlled experimental methods as its main method of investigation.
- humans are information processors.
- the mind operates in the same way as a computer, encoding, storing and outputting data.
- the human brain actively manipulates/processes information from the environment through our senses.
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- our behaviour is determined by unconscious processes of which we are unaware.
- the human mind is energised and subsequent behaviour motivated by instinct or drives.
- childhood experiences determine adult personality through the 5 psychosexual stages; oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital.
- personality has 3 parts; id, superego and ego.
- psychoanalysis can uncover unconscious thoughts (especially in dream analysis).
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- humans must be viewed as a whole and not component parts.
- human beings are unique and should be valued in that way.
- humans have free will, are active agents in their own development and determine their own paths in life.
- humans strive towards self actualisation.
- to be psychologically healthy, our real self and ideal self must be congruent.
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