AQA GCSE Geography A Chapter 13 Tourism

AQA GCSE Georgapy A, Chapter 13 Tourism Notes

Unit revison notes, case studies, models and graphs. 

  • Created by: katy
  • Created on: 06-12-12 20:31

Tourism Growth

Why caused a increase in tourism?

  • Improvements in technology 
    Improvements in aviation, larger more efficient planes - cheaper flights
  • More disposable income
    people paid higher wages since the 1950's, with more income to be spent on holidays
  • Less Children 
    Families have less children, meaning it is less expensive to travel abroad 
  • More holiday time
    Holiday time has increased from two weeks in the 1950's to four to six weeks now 
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Italy CS

Italy Case Study - Area with three types of environment for tourism 

  • The Italian Alps
    Good for skiing, mountainous regions and active, scenic holidays
  • Venice
    Culture, and renaissance architecture, city breaks, canals 
  • Vernazza (Beach Town)
    Beach towns, hotels, sunbathing, hikes, and picturesuqe 
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Tourism & Encomics

The Economic Importance of Tourism 

  • Tourism is an important part of many economies in richer countries, such as those in Western Europe and North America 
  • Essential jobs are created in all countries from tourism, the contribution of the market to the GDP varies creating between the LEDC's and MEDC's. 
  • MEDC's have broadly balanced economies, of which tourism is often a large sector. 
  • However LEDC's often have a economy which is largely based on tourism, and where its contribution is vital. 
  • In the Caribbean many small Islands depend on tourism for income and employment
  • In Barbados, around 80% of national income is from tourism 
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Dubai CS

Dubai Case Study - Area developing tourism away from primary exports 

  • Dubai is a tiny state in the UAE, neighbouring Saudi Arabia
  • Tourism is growing quickly as it is easily accessible from Europe, Asia and Africa (120 airlines fly to Dubai)
  • Hotel revenue is is up by 22% in the first quarter of 2008 compared to the same period of 2007 and bed nights increased by 2 to 3% annually 
  • 5.4 million tourists visited in 2004
  • Famous for its duty free shopping malls, department stores and markets
  • Sightseeing is also popular for markets, zoos and traditional boats
  • Water Sports are growing in popularity 
  • Desert and wildlife excursions 
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The Butler Model

  • Exploration - Small numbers of visitors are attracted by something particular; good beaches, attractive landscapes. Local people have not yet developed many tourist service.
  • Involvement - The local people sees the opportunities ans starts to provide accommodation, food, transport, and other services.
  • Development - Large companies build hotels and leisure complexes and advertise package holidays. Numbers of tourists rise dramatically and job opportunities grow rapidly, but this has both pros and cons 
  • Consolidation - Tourism is a major part of the local economy, but perhaps at the expense of other types of development. Number or visitors make employment more secure. However some hotels and facilities are become old and unattractive so the type of customers goes downmarket. Rowdiness becomes a problem.
  • Stagnation - The resort becomes unfashionable and number of visitors start to decline. Businesses change hands and often fail.
  • Decline or Rejuvenation - Decline; visitors prefer other resorts, day trips become main source of income OR Rejuvenation; attempts to modernise the resort and attract different people to enjoy new activities 
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Blackpool CS

Blackpool Case Study - Resort that closely followed the Butler Model

  • Located on the Lancashire coast
  • There to serve inhabitants of the norther industrialised towns
  • Tourism boomed between 1900 and 1950 
    Due to the development of the railway and the increase in disposable income of workers many went away for short seaside breaks
  • The Blackpool tower and other attractions were built as a result
  • Package holidays and further increase in disposable increase caused it to decline
  • Supercasino would have created 20,000 jobs, and a £2billion investment, but was lost 
  • They tried to lower food and drink costs, however this attracted the wrong kind of tourist and removed the family atmosphere
  • The Blackpool master plan spent millions attempting to make the town look less run down 
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Mass Tourism

  • Mass tourism is tourism on a large scale to one country or region, for a specific reason, skiing in mountain regions, or sunbathing on beaches 


  • Tourism brings jobs, people who were subsistence agricultural farmers or had labour jobs now have a more reliable wage
  • New infrastructures are built for tourists, airports, hotels, rods and communications
  • Construction jobs, although only temporary, often go to locals
  • New leisure facilities are available to the locals 
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Mass Tourism (cont)


  • Activities may be seasonal, locals may be out of work for the rest of the year
  • The industry is dominated by large travel companies who sell package holidays over the Internet
  • Lower and middle income customers are the target market, this kind of tourism does not appeal to wealthier people
  • Few local employees are paid well, the higher level jobs are often given to people from the companies developing the resort and are not given to locals
  • New buildings need land. Local farmers may be tempted to sell their land to developers, or development makes farming almost impossible. Local food production decreases at a time it needs to increase to meet needs
  • Tourists can be narrow minded and often prefer family food, so much is important rather than locally sourced
  • The local landscape and wildlife may be worn down or destroyed 
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Jamacia CS

Jamaica Case Study - Economy supported by tourism

  • One of Carribean's main tourist destinations with 1.3 millions visitors in 2001
  • Tourism is the second biggest earner with 220,000 Jamaicans working directv in this sector.
  • Other local businesses depend on tourism, such as food production and hotel suppliers
  • Jamaica offers water sports, wildlife sanctuaries and golf
  • There has been a recent growth in community tourism, where tourists stay in the homes of the locals and live in the village as part of their stay. Families provide bed and breakfast and other local businesses such as bars
  • This provides a greater interaction with the tourists and the locals, and gives them a better idea of local life, and supports locals.
  • Jamaica needs to maintain tourist resources into the future, and some companies offer eco tourism, which utilizes the inland area of the island
  • Nature reserves and eco-lodges are being built and keeps pressure off the environment 
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Extreme Tourism

  • Involves dangerous landscapes and difficult climates with limited accessibility
  • Increasing numbers of people are attracted to this kind of tourism as there want more of a thrill, pursing activities such as rock climbing and white water rafting.
  • Some of these activities have to be undertook in extreme environments, such as ice walking, however others can be completed in numerous locations, such as paragliding
  • There are many different types of extreme environment distributed across the world, deserts, rain forests, and ice covered terrain
  • It caters for a niche market and involves an element of risk, which attracts the type of tourist the tourism is aimed at
  • These activities include ice-diving in the White Sea or travelling across the Chernobyl Zone

Target Market

  • Adventure tourists look for risk and thrills, they are often around 30 years old, unmarried and without children, frequently male. Have high powered jobs and high incomes
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Antartica CS

Antarctica Case Study - Fragile environment/extreme tourism

  • Tourist first travelled to Antarctica in the 1950's
  • In 2007/08 46,000 people came to antarctica, 15 years prior there were only 9,000 tourists
  • Tourists fly to Argentina or New Zealand and take a cruise to Antarctica 
  • Incredible views, skiing, climbing, scuba-diving are all on offer
  • Landing sites which are chosen for specific attraction become honeypot sites
  • Penguins and seals are disturbed, as they don't liked being touched which often causes them to abandon eggs
  • Oils spills are a hazard for wildlife, especially molluscs and fish 
  • Ships have struck uncharted rocks 
  • Litter pollution is damaging to the wildlife
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Antartica CS (cont)

How is Antarctica coping?

  • Limiting amount of tourist companies allowed to operate, only around 100 are licenced 
  • All waste must be removed, nothing can be left behind
  • Limit the amount of tours allowed to take place each year 
  • Ships are not allowed to let people onto the ice unless they have under 500 passengers 
  • No tourists are allowed to visit SSSI's 
  • Areas with large numbers of wildlife, or endangered wildlife are off limits
  • The tour companies are all part of the IAATO, a eco-friendly tourism group who ensure that Antarctica is protected 
  • Tourism was also limited by the Antarctic Treaty, which was signed by 47 countries in 1961. 
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Stewardship and Conservation

  • Stewardship - the personal responsibility for looking after things, in this case the environment. No one should damage the present or future.
  • Used to mean careful management of the environment on a large scale; even globally
  • All types of development and resource exploitation are planned sustainably 
  • Development priorities are set 
  • The ideal way for any country to develop, but not the way all countries choose too
  • Conservation - the careful and planned use of resources in order to manage and maintain the natural environment for future generations 
  • Is stewardship on a smaller and more manageable scale. 
  • An individual building or park can be conserved
  • Habitats and landscapes can be protected
  • Careful planning of non-renewable energy sources is also conservation
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The Aims of Ecotourism

  • Ecotourism - tourism that focuses on protecting the environment and the local way of life
  • Tourism is being blamed for environmental, social and cultural damage such as;
    beaches becoming polluted and coral reefs degraded
    economies too dependent of tourism
    loss of culture or heritage
  • Ecotourism caters for a niche market of environmentally aware tourists
  • It costs more so attracts more wealthy tourists
  • It means tourists can experience the environment directly eg. bird-watching, trekking
  • Energy used is sustainable and no waste is generated that cannot be dealt with efficiently
  • Small scale accommodation, eat local food and local tourist guides used, jobs for locals
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Galapagos CS

  • 50 volcanic islands off the coast of South America 
  • Around 90% of the islands are designated as National Parks or marine reserves
  • Protection began in the 1930's, a**** the most fragile eco-systems in the world - first World Heritage Site in 1979


  • They arrive only by small ships that tour the island and allow people onshore at specific locations in small numbers
  • The galapagos conservation trust receives £25 from every visitor which pays for conservation work on the islands
  • Tour boats, owned by locals and only take around 10-16 people each
  • Accompanied by professional guides
  • Visitors given accurate information to prevent them from causing damage
  • However some sites are over-used and oil spills can pollute the water. 
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Galapagos CS (cont)

Environmental benefits

  • The fragile ecosystem means there is limited agriculture and other basic industries for development
  • Carefully planned ecotourism offers opportunities for present inhabitants and future generations 

Economic benefits to the local economy

  • Local businesses have started to provide for the needs of the tourists
  • Tourists stay in small guest houses, often run as family businesses

Economic benefits to the individual 

  • People are employed in guest houses, on boats or as guides
  • The income can support a household
  • The tips go directly to local people 
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