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Ice on the Land
Ice levels over time

The Earth has Glacial Periods and Interglacial Periods

1) The earth goes through cold periods which last for millions of years called ice ages. During
ice ages, large masses of ice cover parts of the earth's surface.
2) The last ice age…

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Geological evidence- some landforms we see today were created by glaciers in the past. This
shows that some areas that aren't covered in ice today were covered in the past, which means
temperatures were lower.

Fossil evidence- the remains of some organisms are persevered when they die, creating fossils.

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Temperature changes throughout each year and over the years. Both of these things affect the
glacial budget:

1) Glaciers advance and retreat seasonally:
In the summer there's more Ablation than accumulation because more ice melts
when it's warm. This means there is more negative glacial budget so more glaciers

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Corries begin as hollows containing a small glacier. As the ice moves by rotational slip, it
erodes the hollow into a steep-sided, armchair shape with a lip at the bottom end. When
the ice melts it can leave a small circular lake called a tarn or corrie lake.
A pyramidal…

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1) Lateral moraine is a long mound of material deposited where the sides of the glacier was.
2) Medial moraine is a long mound of material deposited in the centre of a valley where two
glaciers met (the two lateral moraines join together).
3) Terminal moraine builds up at the…

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1) There's only a short growing season (when there's enough light and warmth for plants to
grow) ­ so plants don't have much time to recover if they're damaged.
2) Decay is slow because it's so cold. This means any pollution or litter remains in the
environment for a long…

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