AQA GCSE Geography Globalisation Notes

A* Standard Revision Notes on:

·        The Concept of globalisation and the recognition of global independence.

·        The influence of developments in ICT and transport

·         pros & cons of TNCs

·        Change in Manufacturing location

·        Globalisation and Energy demand

·        Globalisation and Food supply

  • Reducing the impacts of globalisation
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GCSE Geography| Topic 6| Globalisation
What are the Key Ideas for this Topic?
The Concept of globalisation and the recognition of global independence.
The influence of developments in ICT and transport
pros & cons of TNCs
Change in Manufacturing location
Globalisation and Energy demand
Globalisation and Food supply
Reducing the impacts of globalisation
The Concept of globalisation and recognition of global interdependence
Globalisation - the system of interaction among the countries of the world in order to develop the global economy.
Globalisation is the process of the world's economies becoming integrated into a single
community.
Globalisation is caused by international trade, international investment & improvements in
communications.
Globalisation has made countries more interdependent which means they can rely on each
other's resources and services.
The influence of developments in ICT and transport
Improvements in ICT (Information and communication Technology) & Transport have increased globalisation by increasing trade
and investment:
How does the development of ICT increase Globalisation?
Improvements in Technology include; email, the internet, mobile phones and faster phone lines that carry more information.
These improvements have made it quicker and more convenient for businesses all over the globe to communicate with each
other
This means a company can have its headquarters in one country and have branches in other countries. E.g. Nike's Headquarters
are in Oregon, USA and has many branches situated in South-east Asia.
How does the development of transport increase Globalisation?
Improvements in Transport include; increase in airports, high speed trains & larger ships.
These improvements have made it quicker and more convenient for businesses all over the globe to communicate to each other
in person.
This also makes it easier to source supplies from all over the world as well as importing their products all over the world.
The improvements of ICT & Transport have allowed the development of Call centres abroad & Localised Industrial regions:
Call Centres Abroad:
Example: !n 2004, Aviva moved 950 call centre jobs from the UK to India and Sri Lanka, as it costs 40% less than in the UK
Call centres are used by some companies to handle telephone enquires about their business.
An improvement in technology means that it is just as easy to phone someone in a foreign country as in the same country.
Lots of call centres have relocated abroad because the labour cost is cheaper which increases
the profit of the company.
Localised Industrial Regions:
Example: motor sport companies have offices in Oxfordshire and Northamptonshire e.g. Renault Formula 1
team. People like drivers and engineers can easily fly into the area. Use the internet to easily send and receive information and data
about their cars to people around the world.
Improvements in ICT and transport have allowed some industries to develop around a specific region that's useful to them, but
still have global connections to get all the other things they need.

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The Pros and Cons of TNC's
Transnational Corporation- Companies that produce and sell products in different countries.
E.g. Nike's Headquarters are in Oregon, USA and has many branches situated in South-east Asia
TNC's increase globalisation by linking together countries through the production & sales of goods.
Location, Location, Location
TNC's offices and headquarters are usually located in MEDC's because people have better education and administrate skills.…read more

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The workers do not receive benefits and are left to pay for health treatment out of their little received payments ($10 a day)
In March 2004 one of Coca-Cola's LEDC Hosts, faced a depletion of the local ground water table due to the utilisation of natural
water by the company. This posed a threat to communities and will increase the chances of drought.…read more

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Working Hours- Chinese law states that workers should work for a maximum of 40 hours a week with 36 hours of overtime per
month. This however is not enforced and some TNC's like Nike make workers work 80 hours of overtime per month to maximise
the production of goods.
Laxer Health & Safety Regulations- Although the health & safety laws in China are similar to those in the UK, they are not
heavily enforced. E.g.…read more

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Food that is produced locally by energy intensive farms requires lots of energy to make chemicals and run the machinery. Energy
production creates lots of carbon dioxide so local energy intensive farms have a high carbon footprint which leads to more global
warming. (N)
To produce more food, some farmers use marginal land, e.g. steep hillsides. The soil in marginal land is thin and is not very
resistant to erosion and it is very quickly eroded by farming, which degrades the environment.…read more

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As the wind conditions are one of the best in Europe, the wind farms are very cost effective.
Nearly all materials used in a wind turbine are recyclable, and the wind farms can be taken away without letting signs in the
landscape.
Carbon dioxide emissions in Denmark have fallen 13.3 % since the 1990's.
Norway's Wind power industry has created around 20,000 jobs.
Disadvantages
The wind farms destroy the beautiful Norwegian landscape.
The aesthetical deterioration creates difficulties for the tourism industry in
affected areas.…read more

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Explain how improvements in air transport have increased globalisation. (2 Marks)
3. Explain what is meant by "interdependent". (1 Mark)
4. Explain why some companies have moved their call centres abroad. (3 Marks)
5. What is meant by the term "Transnational Corporation" (TNC)? (1 Mark)
6. Give two advantages of TNC's locating at places like south-east Asia. (2 Marks)
7. How do TNC's increase Globalisation? (2 Marks)
8.…read more

Comments

Ali

Thanks for this great resource

Mr A Gibson

Seven pages of really well put together notes and then a list of lots of exam style questions at the end to help you review your knowledge in the context of how you could be asked.

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