Approaches Revision Cards

The psychosexual stages and defence mechanisms are missing from the psychodynamic approach :(

  • Created by: Gaynor
  • Created on: 21-02-20 15:48

Classical Conditioning - Pavlov - AO1

  • Learning through association

  • Dogs can be trained to salivate (unconditioned response) in response to a bell (neutral stimulus) if the sound was repeatedly presented at the same time as the food (unconditioned stimulus)

  • They would eventually associate the bell (conditioned stimulus) with food so that when the bell was rung, they would salivate (conditioned response) even if there was no food

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Operant Conditioning – Skinner – AO1

  • Positive reinforcement – receiving a reward when a certain behaviour is performed

  • Negative reinforcement – avoiding something unpleasant 

  • Punishment – unpleasant consequence of a behaviour

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Behaviourism Evaluation – AO3

  • Scientific credibility – focuses on observable behaviour – objective & replicable lab-based experiments

  • Real-life application – token-economy systems & treatment of phobias

  • Mechanistic view of behaviour – seen as passive & machine-like responders to the environment – doesn't consider possible mediational processes – maybe SLT is a better approach

  • Environmental determinism – all behaviour is determined by past experiences that have been conditioned – doesn't consider free will

  • Ethical issues – animals involved in experiments were exposed to stressful & adverse conditions – Skinner Box

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SLT – Vicarious Reinforcement – Bandura

  • People learn through observation and imitation of others

  • Vicarious reinforcement is not directly experienced by the observer but through observing someone else's being reinforced for a behaviour

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Role of Mediational Processes – AO1

  • Attention – noticing behaviours 

  • Retention – remembering

  • Motor reproduction – performing behaviour

  • Motivation – reason to perform behaviour

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Identification – AO1

  • People are more likely to imitate the behaviour of people with whom they identify – role models – modelling 

  • A person becomes a role model if they have similar characteristics to the observer and/or attractive and have high status

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SLT Evaluation – AO3

  • Cognitive factors - provides a more comprehensive explanation of behaviour

  • Over-reliance on lab-based studies Bobo doll – demand characteristics

  • Biological factors? - does not consider the impact of biological factors like testosterone affects aggression in boys

  • Explains cultural differences – ranging behaviours in different societies

  • Reciprocal determinism – not only influenced by the environmentbut we also influence the environment – less deterministic than behaviourism

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Cognitive – Theoretical & Computer Models - AO1

  • Information processing approach – information flows through the cognitive system in stages – input, storage and  retrieval

  • Computer models – the mind is like a computer as it processes info in a similar way ex. coding (turn info into usable format)

  • This has been useful in the development of artificial intelligence

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Role of Schema – AO1

  • Schema – the mental framework of beliefs that influence cognitive processing - formed through experience

  • Helps respond to something appropriately 

  • Babies have motor schemas for innate behaviours like grasping

  • Schemas allow us to process info quickly – preventing us from being overwhelmed by environmental stimuli

  • Though they can distort our interpretations of sensory info – leading to perceptual errors

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The Emergence of Cognitive Neuroscience - AO1

  • Within the last 20 yrs, there have been advances with brain imaging techniques – fMRI and PET scans – can observe mental processes

  • These have allowed developments in research for things like different types of long-term memory

  • Has also helped find neurological bases for mental disorders – like the link between OCD and parahippocampal gyrus

  • Cognitive neuroscience has led to the development of mind-mapping and could be used to analyse brain wave patterns for lie detectors

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Cognitive Approach Evaluation – AO3 ​

  • Scientific and objective methods of study – highly reliable – credible

  • Machine reductionism – ignores the effect of emotion and motivation on the cognitive system – anxiety has proved to have an effect – ewt

  • Application to everyday life? – too focused on lab-based studies which lack external validity

  • Real-life application – made an important contribution to artificial intelligence and thinking machines – robots 

  • Less deterministic than other approaches – soft determinism more of an interactionist approach

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Biological – Genetic Basis of Behaviour – AO1

  • Behaviour is down to biological structures – genes, neurochemistry 

  • We inherit behavioural characteristics like intelligence and disorders through our genes

  • Twins studies and high concordance rates show a genetic basis for behaviour

  • Genotype – actual genetic make-up

  • Phenotype – characteristics influenced both by biological and environmental factors

Much of behaviour depends on an interaction of nature andnurture

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Evolution and Behaviour – AO1

Genetically determined behaviour that enhances an individual's survival and reproduction will continue in future generations through natural selection

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Biological Approach Evaluation – AO3

  • Scientific methods of study – highly reliable

  • Real-life application – development of psychoactive drugs for mental illness treatment

  • Causal conclusions– offers many causes of mental illnesses mainly neurotransmitters – mainly just an association not necessarily a cause 

  • Hard determinism – sees everything as being governed by biological factors, ignoring everything else

  • Cannot separate nature and nurture – twins share the same genetics, but also the same environment so can't say it ispurely nature

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Psychodynamic Approach – Unconscious - Freud - AO1

  • Freud suggested that most of our mind is made up of the unconscious

  • It contains disturbing memories which have been repressed and forgotten – we only become aware of these in dreams and slips of the tongue (parapraxes)

  • ID – primitive part – operates on the pleasure principle – selfish and demands instant gratification

  • Ego – works on reality principle – mediator between other two – employs defence mechanisms

  • Superego – internalised sense of right and wrong – works on moralityprinciple – end of the phallic stage – moral standards of same-sex parent

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Psychodynamic Approach Evaluation – AO3

  • Explanatory power – huge influence in psychology in the 20th century - explained wide-ranging phenomena like abnormal behaviour 

  • Case studies – Freud's work mainly based on case studies – Little Hans – lack scientific rigour

  • Untestable concepts – Popper argued it is not falsifiable – not scientific – unconscious and Oedipus complex cannot be studied

  • Practical application – psychoanalysis – used to treat mild neurosis

  • Psychic determinism – everything driven by unconscious forces

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Humanistic Approach – AO1

  • Free will – humans are self-determining and are not influenced by biological or environmental factors – a person-centred approach

  • Self-actualisation Maslow – everyone has the innate tendency to achieve their full potential – personal growth is what it means to be human – hierarchy of needs

  • Congruence Rogers – when the self and ideal-self are matched

  • To reduce the gap between self and ideal-self, client-centred therapy was introduced – helps with low self-esteem 

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Humanistic Approach Evaluation – AO3

  • Holist – looks at the whole person – more validity 

  • Limited application – hierarchy of needs has been applied in the workplace to understand the motivation - not as useful as other approaches

  • Positive – focuses on people themselves and optimism

  • Untestable concepts – self-actualisation and congruence lack empirical evidence

  • Cultural bias – these ideas are focused on individualistic cultures – individual freedom – does not consider collectivist cultures

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