HideShow resource information
  • Created by: marie
  • Created on: 05-05-12 14:06
Preview of ADDICTION (2012) REVISION

First 323 words of the document:

Psychology ­ Addiction, Research Methods & Schizophrenia
Module 1 ­ Addiction
This approach suggests that we become addicted to something because doing
without the stimulus is very unpleasant. Tolerance is an important concept in
biological explanations of addiction. The more we use a substance or carry out
certain behaviours, the more tolerant we are to its effects, so addicts must continue
the addictive behaviour more and more to maintain the subsequent positive feeling it
Withdrawal occurs when the addict stops engaging in the addictive behaviour, but a
range of unpleasant physical symptoms arise, known as "withdrawal symptoms."
Neurotransmitters play a role in both chemical and non-chemical addictions, as the
addictive substance or behaviour causes changes in the brain chemistry following
repeated use. Dopamine is the main subject of research.
Lehrman et al. (1999) found people with the SCL6A3-9 gene are more likely to take
up smoking than those without it, suggesting that it is because of genetic
predisposition that we initiate the addictive behaviour of smoking.
(-) reductionism
(-) some that smoked did not have the gene
(+) Noble referred to the DRD2 gene as the reward gene, claiming that those with
alleles of DRD2 that lead to fewer dopamine receptors in the brain were more likely
to become addicted, as certain drugs that increase dopamine levels compensate for
the receptor deficiency.
(+) Comings et al. (1996) found that the DRD2 variation was found in higher
frequencies in smokers, pathological gamblers and alcoholics than the normal
(-) genes are not the sole explanation
(-) Determinism: the fact that some people may be more likely than others to become
addicted so substances/behaviours may allow us to ignore the element of free will in
the initiation of addictive behaviour.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

According to the biological model, the reason for continued smoking is chemical
addiction to the highly addictive substance, nicotine. There is clear evidence that
nicotine is highly addictive and produces changes in how the brain works.
(+) Schachter (1977) found that smokers who smoked low-nicotine cigarettes
smoked 25% more cigarettes than those who smoked high-nicotine content
cigarettes.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

This is closely linked to the physical experience caused by gambling, explained in
terms of a positive reward theory. Gambling floods the body with adrenaline, which is
thought to be highly addictive due to the "rush" it provides.
(-) Bergh et al. (1997) claims that there is a link between gambling, the reward
system and impulsive behaviour.
(-) Comings et al. (1996) showed that pathological gamblers are more likely to carry
certain gene.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

The cognitive model places emphasis on interpretation of events and habitual ways
of thinking to explain the development of addictive behaviour.
Beck (2001) developed the "vicious circle" to explain addiction from his cognitive
Coping by Using
Low Mood
Financial, social and
medical problems
Coping ­ people engage in addictive behaviour as a means of coping with stress in
their lives and for:
Mood Regulation ­ addictive behaviours can be used to increase positive mood and
reduce negative mood.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

When someone begins smoking, it can be described in terms of expectancy.
Smokers expect that nicotine will initiate social interactions or reduce stress due to
faulty beliefs. In terms of coping, performance enhancement may explain why people
start smoking. The self-efficacy belief that smokers can stop smoking at any time
may contribute to the initiation of smoking behaviour.
(+) Heishman (1999) found that smoking can help someone concentrate with
increased attentional focus and enhanced performance of well-learned behaviours.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Beck's Cognitive Triad ­ through gambling, which initially provides reward through
good feeling, many people get into financial trouble, which leads to a low mood,
leading them to gamble again.
Coping ­ addicts may begin gambling to get a good feeling, encouraging them to
interpret their behaviour in a positive way.
Self-Efficacy ­ gamblers do not see their behaviour as such a problem, as the
withdrawal symptoms are not as extreme as substance abuse so they continue,
believing there are no consequences.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

The withdrawal symptoms of gambling are not too serious, so the gambler returns to
the possibility of winning money. Gamblers feel they can stop at any time, so a
relapse is not perceived as much of a problem.
Behaviour may begin because smoking is associated with desirable outcomes or
rewards. The new smoker associates the cigarette with this positive feeling,
reinforcing the link between smoking and feeling good.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

According to the behaviourist model, gambling behaviour is initiated as the addict
sees others winning on slot machines or the lottery. Their expectations of the win
may drive them to place their first bet, being playing the lottery. Once they have
started, the excitement is associated with gambling, causing addiction.
Gamblers receive intermittent rewards, i.e. they do not win every time, which only
serves to reinforce the addiction.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Monique Helfer claimed that 17% of women over 75 used painkillers and sleeping
tablets every day, and in men over 75, 46% drank daily.
(-) doctors are more likely to prescribe females medication
Eiser et al. (1991) found that smokers tend to befriend smokers and non-smokers
tend to befriend non-smokers.
Two theories are important in smoking addiction:
1) Social Learning Theory ­ Bandura, 1977
2) Social Identity Theory ­ Abrams and Hogg, 1990
(+) Duncan et al.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Hans Eysenck (1997) propsed a psychological resource model, i.e. the individual
develops an addictive habit because it fulfils a certain purpose related to the
personality type of the individual:
Psychoticism: aggressive, cold, impulsive and egocentric characteristics
Neuroticism: moody, irritable and anxious characteristics
Extraversion: sociable, lively and optimistic characteristics
(-) Research evidence shows little support for a link between E and drug
dependence.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »