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Psychology ­ Addiction, Research Methods & Schizophrenia

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Module 1 ­ Addiction
1) BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS ­ SMOKING
This approach suggests that we become addicted to something because doing without the
stimulus is very unpleasant. Tolerance is an important concept in biological explanations of
addiction. The more we use a substance or carry out certain behaviours, the more tolerant…

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MAINTENANCE

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According to the biological model, the reason for continued smoking is chemical addiction to the
highly addictive substance, nicotine. There is clear evidence that nicotine is highly addictive and
produces changes in how the brain works.
(+) Schachter (1977) found that smokers who smoked low-nicotine cigarettes smoked 25%
more cigarettes…

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INITIATION

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This is closely linked to the physical experience caused by gambling, explained in terms of a
positive reward theory. Gambling floods the body with adrenaline, which is thought to be highly
addictive due to the "rush" it provides.
(-) Bergh et al. (1997) claims that there is a link between…

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3) COGNITIVE EXPLANATIONS ­ SMOKING

Page 8

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The cognitive model places emphasis on interpretation of events and habitual ways of thinking
to explain the development of addictive behaviour.
Beck (2001) developed the "vicious circle" to explain addiction from his cognitive triad:
Coping by Using
Low Mood
Financial, social and medical problems
Coping ­ people engage in addictive…

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INITIATION

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When someone begins smoking, it can be described in terms of expectancy. Smokers expect
that nicotine will initiate social interactions or reduce stress due to faulty beliefs. In terms of
coping, performance enhancement may explain why people start smoking. The self-efficacy
belief that smokers can stop smoking at any time…

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Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Psychology ­ Addiction, Research Methods & Schizophrenia

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Module 1 ­ Addiction
1) BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS ­ SMOKING
This approach suggests that we become addicted to something because doing without the
stimulus is very unpleasant. Tolerance is an important concept in biological explanations of
addiction. The more we use a substance or carry out certain behaviours, the more tolerant…

Page 3

Preview of page 3

MAINTENANCE

Page 4

Preview of page 4
According to the biological model, the reason for continued smoking is chemical addiction to the
highly addictive substance, nicotine. There is clear evidence that nicotine is highly addictive and
produces changes in how the brain works.
(+) Schachter (1977) found that smokers who smoked low-nicotine cigarettes smoked 25%
more cigarettes…

Page 5

Preview of page 5

INITIATION

Page 6

Preview of page 6
This is closely linked to the physical experience caused by gambling, explained in terms of a
positive reward theory. Gambling floods the body with adrenaline, which is thought to be highly
addictive due to the "rush" it provides.
(-) Bergh et al. (1997) claims that there is a link between…

Page 7

Preview of page 7

3) COGNITIVE EXPLANATIONS ­ SMOKING

Page 8

Preview of page 8
The cognitive model places emphasis on interpretation of events and habitual ways of thinking
to explain the development of addictive behaviour.
Beck (2001) developed the "vicious circle" to explain addiction from his cognitive triad:
Coping by Using
Low Mood
Financial, social and medical problems
Coping ­ people engage in addictive…

Page 9

Preview of page 9

INITIATION

Page 10

Preview of page 10
When someone begins smoking, it can be described in terms of expectancy. Smokers expect
that nicotine will initiate social interactions or reduce stress due to faulty beliefs. In terms of
coping, performance enhancement may explain why people start smoking. The self-efficacy
belief that smokers can stop smoking at any time…

Comments

No comments have yet been made