A2 Psychology Revision Booklet -* Relationships *

i made it myself for my revision..so tought it wud be helpful to you guys too

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Relationships
I. The formation, maintenance and breakdown of
romantic relationships
1. Formation
A. Maslow
1. Basic need for affiliation
2. To belong and be accepted by others
B. Clore and Byrne Reward Theory (Reward Need Satisfaction Theory)
1. P Hall's personal space, Felipe and Sommer's library
2. E+F Argyle ^ interaction > ^ extreme attitudes
3. S Rubin ^ joint activity > ^ self esteem
4. PA Dion et al ^ phys attr > ^ attr personality
explains why we form relationships
Griffit and Guay p's rated liking an experimenter who +vely evaluated their performance (reinforcement,
operant conditioning)
onlookers who went to the =+vely evaluated p's were rated high (pleasant experience related with liking the
onlooker classical conditioning)
study was conducted in artificial settings generalisation?
physical attractiveness wasn't even considered
this only explores the rewards a person gets from a relationship whereas Hayes found that people find it
rewarding to give as well as receiving.
lacks gender and cultural validity Lott found that women focus more on others satisfaction than their own.
C. Kerckhoff and Davies Filter model
Field of "desirables" > field of "availables"
1. Demographic stability race religion ed similar
2. Attitudes psych characteristics, shared vales and beliefs ^ relationship
3. Needs emotional, hw couples meet each others needs^ relationship. More imp for LT
relationships

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K + D
can help people with relation problems
Spreecher couples matched in phys attrac > LT relationships
Walster mismatched couples lead to insecurity of the inferior partner. Puts strain and jeopardises the LT
success. Link to matching hypothesis.
GruberBadini couples similar ed background > ^ stay together
student partners/couples generalisation ?
attitudes^ >18 months , emotional needs^ <18months not interested in developing rel.
modern times, less D very basic culturally biased towards C society filter diff order
D.…read more

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Ignores body language rudeness, effect of
members/family
culture specific as studies have been done in western countries. E.g. In collec socarranged marriages have
minimal role of phys attra cant be applied across cultures.
ethical issues of Walsters researchthey were told the ?aire wud match them, whereas it was random. They
didn't no their attr was being assessed informed consent could've harm.
2. Maintenance Economic theories
how couples regulate rel.…read more

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Applied research to refugee camps, abusive partners why women still stay women had felt the
greatest commitment to their rel when their economic alt were poor and investment was great.
Commitment *satisfaction *comparison with others *substantial investment, e.g. Mutual friends,
shared property, emotional I barriers to dissolution break up nu rokde ne.
Diff between this and SET is SET looks at C + R, this looks at investments. Explains why ppl may still remain in
rel if its unrewarding.…read more

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Is Open to rel but doesnt enter them thoughtlessly
Is Aware of others faults, but not overcritical
Is Willing to work to improve a rel or tke action whn partners turn nasty or break rules of rel
Is Rational and sensible, brings closure to rel only after trauma, hard work or o reasonable grounds
after making a real effort to make things work.
C. Duck's model
1. IntraPsychic phase
Start of breakup, 1 partner unhappy, look at C of rel, withdrawal.…read more

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Face: Cunningham types of female faces found attractive by men. Usually associated with young
childrenlarge wide eyes, small noses and chins. Some with maturity, e.g.. Prominent cheekbones,
narrow cheeks, dilated pupils, wide smiles. Waynforth masculine facial features inc. squared jaw,
ridged eyebrows, small eyes and a symmetrical face were preferred by women, specially ST
partners. Bruce and Young found that there is preference for symmetrical face in both men and
women.
Langlois et al meta analysis of 919 studies into physical attractiveness.…read more

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Suvival of the fittest/healthiest"
E.g. Beetles green and brown, green eaten y crow, brown ^, only brown left.
4. Sexual Selection
Acts on the organisms ability to obtain a mate, selection tht is driven by the competition for mates.
"struggle between he individuals of one sex generally the males, for the possession of the other sex".
"survival of the sexiest"
Individuals posess features that make them att to opposite sex or help them compete with members of
same sex for access to mates.…read more

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Dreams Ellis and Symons men r more likely to hv sexual dreams than women, especially involving
no. Or anonymous partners and strangers.
many of the case studies in this area have ethical implications
Clark and Hatfield's study, uni students, involed deception and a lack of informed consent.
Buss and Schmitt into sexualjealousy involved some degree of emotional distress and stress, even though p's
consented to the experiment.…read more

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These strategies are flexible, for men and women.
Men S for ST most imp fertility and youth, willingness to engage in activity without
commitment.
Men S for LT woman they choose shud be good in parenting, otherwise their offspring
maynt survive. They need partner to be faithful, cuckoldry, investment.
Women S for ST "benefits" e.g. mate insurance, in case her proper mate disappears,
generous male, resources for offspring, also be physically attractive and provide good
genes.…read more

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Parent Offspring Conflict
III. Effects of early experience and culture on adult
relationships
A. First Point
1. Supporting Point
2. Supporting Point
B. Second Point
1. Supporting Point
2.…read more

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