Alternative Theory: Levels of Processing
The theory says that there are two levels of proessing in the brain, from shallow to deep. If we only shallow-process information, then we are not really learning about its meaning. For example, recognising whether someone is male or female but not remembering their face. Deep processing includes thinking about what a piece of writing means or trying to understand what a person is saying. If we process information for meaning, we are more likely to remember it.