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Sustainable Transport - Curitiba, Brazil

Population has increased from 300,000 people in 1950 to 2.5 million in 2015. But they have avoided problems with congestion, pollution, unemployment and poor living conditions through their master plan that promoted sustainability.

- 17 new parks have been developed in recent year with 1.5 million trees planted.

- Areas prone to flooding have been converted into wetland habitats instead of being developed.

- 2/3 of their waste is recycled and the urban poor can exchange their waste for free bus tickets or for food.

- Bus companies are paid for the distance of road they cover rather than the number of passengers they serve, ensuring all areas have access to transport.

- Cycle paths and bus routes have been integrated into the city and park areas. The road network and public transport routes have been kept seperate to form direct routes.

- Lowest petrol consumption per capita in Brazil.

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Urbanisation - Mumbai, India

The most populous settlement in India with 28 million inhabitants. Colonised by GB in 1668 and was mainly used as a trading port. Since then it has grown into a financial center that specialiases in IT and telecoms. 

Push                                                                Pull

- 1.1 billion people live below the poverty line.      - 90% of Mumbai has access to electricity.

- Poor healthcare and access to the internet.        - Higher job availability and better schools.

- 5.7 million with AIDS in rural India.                   - 74% have access to tap water.

- 1/4 of rural population is poor.                          - Home of the world's biggest film industry.


- High levels of congestion = High levels of pollution, increasing lung-related diseases.

- Poor levels of sanitation as water pipes run through sewage.

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