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Lesson 6.

Kiribati Case Study: Sinking Islands

Where it is?

The Republic of Kiribati.
In Pacific Ocean.
Population of 100,800. Densely populated.
Main exports of Copra, fish & seaweed.
GNI per capita; $1,890.
Highest land point 6 ft above sea level.

What are the threats?

Water supplies contaminated…

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How are they caused?

Sea level rise; thermal expansion & melting of ice caps from global warming.
Country can't afford to protect itself.
Increased vulnerability.

What are the consequences?

Beachside communities have been moved inland.
World Environment Day to request international help to evacuate his country
Attempts to combat…

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All tectonic activity takes place along the plate boundaries.

Constructive boundaries -- where new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other.

Destructive boundaries -- where crust is destroyed as plates collide ­ oceanic goes under
continental. Earthquakes, 80% of volcanoes.

Conservative boundaries -- where crust…

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They occur 5 north or south of the equator. As they move over land they lose their power (away
from warm water).

Effects: heavy rain = flooding & mudslides, high winds = storm surge and coastal flooding. 50
hurricanes start every year, about 1 third make land. 90% of people…

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One of the most densely populated countries in the world.
Increasing pressure on natural resources & economy to create jobs ­ wood is the main
export, which results in deforestation.

Tropical cyclones (Typhoons).

Most significant natural hazard due to frequency, damage & deaths.
Typhoon season is June to November.

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Philippines have 200 volcanoes, 17 are active.
Long term means fertile soil however short term means devastating effects.
In 19 91, Pinahubo produced pyro-classic flows, ash falls, lava flows & lahars (landslides).
60,000 people fled their homes & 678,000 were displaced.
Lahars covered 200km squared causing long term affects…

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In 19 87, Typhoon Sisang, residents refused to evacuate Sorsogan due to no previous
devastation, however this caused death & poverty.
50% are under 9 years old or over 70.


Foreign debt of over £17 billion ­ means £270 per person.
Typhoons in 19 88-89 reduced economic growth in…


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