World at risk (Lesson 6-10)

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  • Created on: 14-02-11 18:04
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Lesson 6.
Kiribati Case Study: Sinking Islands
Where it is?
The Republic of Kiribati.
In Pacific Ocean.
Population of 100,800. Densely populated.
Main exports of Copra, fish & seaweed.
GNI per capita; $1,890.
Highest land point 6 ft above sea level.
What are the threats?
Flooding.
Erosion.
Water supplies contaminated by the encroaching salt water.
Island will submerge.
Issue of human survival.
Storm surges.

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How are they caused?
Sea level rise; thermal expansion & melting of ice caps from global warming.
Country can't afford to protect itself.
Increased vulnerability.
Low-lying.
What are the consequences?
Beachside communities have been moved inland.
World Environment Day to request international help to evacuate his country
Attempts to combat climate change.
Tebua Tarawa and Abanuea have already disappeared- ironically means "the beach which is
long-lasting".
Coral reefs being destroyed.
Culturally destroyed.
Countries disappearing.
People losing their homes & become frustrated.
People dying.
Crops destroyed.…read more

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All tectonic activity takes place along the plate boundaries.
Constructive boundaries -- where new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other.
Volcanoes.
Destructive boundaries -- where crust is destroyed as plates collide ­ oceanic goes under
continental. Earthquakes, 80% of volcanoes.
Conservative boundaries -- where crust is neither produced nor destroyed as the plates slide
horizontally past each other. Earthquakes. E.g San Andreas Fault
Collision boundaries ­ 2 plates collide together forcing land up ­ e.g. Himalayas. Earthquakes.…read more

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They occur 5 north or south of the equator. As they move over land they lose their power (away
from warm water).
Effects: heavy rain = flooding & mudslides, high winds = storm surge and coastal flooding. 50
hurricanes start every year, about 1 third make land. 90% of people die from drowning. Over 74mph
hurricanes are born.
Landslides: 7th biggest global killer, over 1,400 deaths per year.
Effects: Affect mountainous areas after heavy rain or seismic activity. Deforestation and building =
slides.…read more

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One of the most densely populated countries in the world.
Increasing pressure on natural resources & economy to create jobs ­ wood is the main
export, which results in deforestation.
Tropical cyclones (Typhoons).
Most significant natural hazard due to frequency, damage & deaths.
Typhoon season is June to November.
95% of Typhoons originate from the Pacific Ocean & only 5% from the South China Sea.
Causes an annual death toll of 529.
Economic loss of £88 million a year.…read more

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Volcanoes.
Philippines have 200 volcanoes, 17 are active.
Long term means fertile soil however short term means devastating effects.
In 19 91, Pinahubo produced pyro-classic flows, ash falls, lava flows & lahars (landslides).
60,000 people fled their homes & 678,000 were displaced.
Lahars covered 200km squared causing long term affects of river courses have been altered.
Material erupted by lahars ­ lasted years, destructive lahars at times of heavy rainfall.
Landslides.…read more

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In 19 87, Typhoon Sisang, residents refused to evacuate Sorsogan due to no previous
devastation, however this caused death & poverty.
50% are under 9 years old or over 70.
Economic.
Foreign debt of over £17 billion ­ means £270 per person.
Typhoons in 19 88-89 reduced economic growth in agricultural sector by £98 million, losing
62,000 jobs.
Loss of GNI meant they could have brought 421 hospitals or 800,000 shelters.
No cost-benefit analysis.
Economic damage of £2.06 billion between 19 87 to 19 91.…read more

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