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Lesson 6.

Kiribati Case Study: Sinking Islands

Where it is?

The Republic of Kiribati.
In Pacific Ocean.
Population of 100,800. Densely populated.
Main exports of Copra, fish & seaweed.
GNI per capita; $1,890.
Highest land point 6 ft above sea level.

What are the threats?

Flooding.
Erosion.
Water supplies contaminated…

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How are they caused?

Sea level rise; thermal expansion & melting of ice caps from global warming.
Country can't afford to protect itself.
Increased vulnerability.
Low-lying.

What are the consequences?

Beachside communities have been moved inland.
World Environment Day to request international help to evacuate his country
Attempts to combat…

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All tectonic activity takes place along the plate boundaries.

Constructive boundaries -- where new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other.
Volcanoes.

Destructive boundaries -- where crust is destroyed as plates collide ­ oceanic goes under
continental. Earthquakes, 80% of volcanoes.

Conservative boundaries -- where crust…

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They occur 5 north or south of the equator. As they move over land they lose their power (away
from warm water).

Effects: heavy rain = flooding & mudslides, high winds = storm surge and coastal flooding. 50
hurricanes start every year, about 1 third make land. 90% of people…

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One of the most densely populated countries in the world.
Increasing pressure on natural resources & economy to create jobs ­ wood is the main
export, which results in deforestation.

Tropical cyclones (Typhoons).

Most significant natural hazard due to frequency, damage & deaths.
Typhoon season is June to November.
95%…

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Volcanoes.

Philippines have 200 volcanoes, 17 are active.
Long term means fertile soil however short term means devastating effects.
In 19 91, Pinahubo produced pyro-classic flows, ash falls, lava flows & lahars (landslides).
60,000 people fled their homes & 678,000 were displaced.
Lahars covered 200km squared causing long term affects…

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In 19 87, Typhoon Sisang, residents refused to evacuate Sorsogan due to no previous
devastation, however this caused death & poverty.
50% are under 9 years old or over 70.

Economic.

Foreign debt of over £17 billion ­ means £270 per person.
Typhoons in 19 88-89 reduced economic growth in…

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