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Lesson 11.


Not been an eruption since 19 15 ­ Lassen Park.
Are being monitored for potential eruptions e.g. Lassen Park, Mammoth Lakes.


Coastal floods linked to storm surges every year from winter storms ­ Long Beach recently
devastated ­ whole of Californian coast is suffering coastal subsidence…

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Why effects so bad? Santa Andrea's fault & Ring of fire & coastal area,
coastal area. also have a weak capacity to
Damage caused. With a majority high capacity The country can't develop
to cope means that there are economically unless it was to
quick responses. be cleared of…

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· It is effectively the exact / extreme opposite of El Nino.
· Sea temperatures off Peru fall below normal = high pressure & dryer than normal conditions
= extreme drought.
· Low pressure = heavy rain & flooding in Indonesia & Australia.
· Warmer winter temperatures in S.E. USA.…

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¾ of Queensland was a disaster-zone.
Livestock drowned.
Thousands evacuated.
35 dead & 9 still missing.
Damage of approximately £30,000,000,000.
Barely been affected by recession, but now mines have been flooded (price gone up).
70 towns affected.
Approximately 200,000 people directly affected.
Roads & railways damaged (infrastructure).
Trade from North…

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Measuring long term climate change.

Ice Cores.

The best evidence comes from Ice cores taken from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets.
Air bubbles in the core show C levels (parts per million) in the ice.
Glacial periods have low C ppm.
Interglacial periods have higher C ppm.
Carbon levels…

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Arctic ocean could be ice free by 2060 if the melting continues.
Glaciers worldwide melting & retreating e.g. Greenland ice sheet lost 239km³ in 2006.
Other natural drivers of climate change
Astronomical forcing: a Serbian, Milutin Milankovitch developed the theory of climate
forcing in 1924. He believed the earth's temperature…


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