Going global class notes 1

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014
Lesson 1: What is globalisation?
Globalisation is an umbrella term to describe the ways in which people and places internationally
are becoming interlinked, including through an increased number of cross-border transactions and
more widespread technology.
Types of globalisation
Economic ­ Includes the growth of TNCs with a global reach, and the global spread of foreign
Cultural ­ The growth of western influence over aspects such as music, media and fashion.
Political ­ Dominance of western democracies in decision making, and the belief that democratic
societies are ideal.
Demographic ­ Results from increasing migration and mixing populations.
Environmental ­ Realisation that global environmental issues such as climate change require
global solutions.
Factors encouraging globalisation
Factors (point) Examples Explanation
Oil money ­ high prices in the Qatar Oil is sold to other countries
1970s created wealth to meet demands, for high
through petrodollars profit
Free trade and international EU Companies can be active in
organisations ­ removal of different countries ­ cheaper
trade tariffs trade, easier to buy foreign
Communications technology Social networking People can communicate
­ in 1998, 9% of homes had instantly with people from all
internet access, in 2006 this over the world
was 58% (UK)
Transport technology ­ cheap UPS/FEDEX, Ryanair Imports are more common,
transport foreign travel is more popular
and cheaper
Financial deregulation ­ PayPal International purchases are
government control over easier, there is no need to
banks has decreased exchange money
The media BBC World Service You can find out what is
happening anywhere in the
TNCs ­ operate TESCO Brands you can trust
Consumers China Cheaper labour = cheaper
Lesson 2: How does globalisation affect you?
Money ­ Rising petrol prices, food from "the global village"
Technology ­ The latest gadgets are all made abroad

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014
Politics ­ The global war on terror
Culture ­ Films from Hollywood/Bollywood
Interdependence is the way in which economies are linked. In a globalised world, events in any
one country will affect many others, e.g.…read more

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014
Key point = Identity can change within a country. E.G. Brazil ­ residents of large cities will feel part
of a global community, but indigenous tribes are far removed.
The global shift
The global shift is the changing location of production. This began in the 1950s when low-tech
production was moved to the Asian Tigers NICs. It accelerated in the 1990s.
Population movements
Globalisation hasn't made the world borderless. It is especially hard for poorer people to migrate.
In 2004, 1.…read more

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014
· Different countries can specialise and use · Economic collapse can't be contained
resources optimally to produce goods and because countries are all connected
services more efficiently · Exploitation of LEDCs widens the gap
· More jobs are created in poorer countries between the rich and the poor
when TNCs move their production sites into · TNCs use robots rather than people,
their country resulting in rising unemployment levels
· Rise of Tiger economies, e.g.…read more

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014
The Brandt line shows a north/south divide in economies. Countries north of the line are more
economically developed and richer than those below.
The Development Gap
There still exists a huge gap between the rich and the poor, which is referred to as the
Development Gap. The ways in which many LEDCs have tried to develop their economies have left
them paralysed by debt. An example of this is Malawi, which is one of the world's poorest
countries.…read more

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014
Case study: North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
· Phase out tariffs and eliminate trade barriers
· Promote economic competition between members
· Increased investment opportunities
· Improved cooperation between members
Positive elements Negative elements
Trade between members tripled between Some Canadian companies closed because of
1993 and 2007 ($306 billion to $960 billion) competition from cheaper US companies
Manufacturing in the USA grew, meaning jobs US firms moved to Mexico for cheaper wages
were created and so some jobs…read more

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014
· To spread the risks (e.g. those associated with industrial action and crop failures)
· To be closer to their separate markets (which may need to be served differently, depending on
cultural needs; glocalisation ­ products generally the same but with subtle differences, e.g.…read more

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014
· If the company is not happy with economic
conditions in the host country, it can pull out
at any time, which would leave thousands
Lesson 7: Global networks
Switched on = most connected places are linked through consumption and production of goods
and services
Switched off = places are peripheral or wilderness regions with a lack of people or wealth
Global networks = places connected through consumption of goods and services or production of
goods and services
Key concept…read more

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014
Costs to UK Benefits to UK
· Reduced customer satisfaction · Strong IT skills in host countries
· Dereliction and decay of unused buildings · Improved customer service
· Job losses ­ 200,000 by 2005 · Reduced cost to company, meaning greater
· Deindustrialisation ­ similar to post-war profits
when textile industry was lost
Why do some countries remain switched off?
Physical factors Economic factors Human factors
· Highly vulnerable to climate · TNCs dominate control of · Lack of skills…read more


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