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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014

Lesson 1: What is globalisation?

Globalisation is an umbrella term to describe the ways in which people and places internationally
are becoming interlinked, including through an increased number of cross-border transactions and
more widespread technology.

Types of globalisation

Economic ­ Includes the growth of TNCs with…

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014

Politics ­ The global war on terror
Culture ­ Films from Hollywood/Bollywood

Interdependence

Interdependence is the way in which economies are linked. In a globalised world, events in any
one country will affect many others, e.g. Wall Street crash

Case study: Dell laptops
· Designed in…

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014



Key point = Identity can change within a country. E.G. Brazil ­ residents of large cities will feel part
of a global community, but indigenous tribes are far removed.
The global shift
The global shift is the changing location of production. This began in the 1950s…

Page 4

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014

· Different countries can specialise and use · Economic collapse can't be contained
resources optimally to produce goods and because countries are all connected
services more efficiently · Exploitation of LEDCs widens the gap
· More jobs are created in poorer countries between the rich and…

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014

The Brandt line shows a north/south divide in economies. Countries north of the line are more
economically developed and richer than those below.


The Development Gap

There still exists a huge gap between the rich and the poor, which is referred to as the
Development Gap.…

Page 6

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014

Case study: North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Aims:
· Phase out tariffs and eliminate trade barriers
· Promote economic competition between members
· Increased investment opportunities
· Improved cooperation between members

Positive elements Negative elements
Trade between members tripled between Some Canadian companies closed because…

Page 7

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014

· To spread the risks (e.g. those associated with industrial action and crop failures)
· To be closer to their separate markets (which may need to be served differently, depending on
cultural needs; glocalisation ­ products generally the same but with subtle differences, e.g.
Cadbury's chocolate…

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014

· If the company is not happy with economic
conditions in the host country, it can pull out
at any time, which would leave thousands
unemployed


Lesson 7: Global networks

Switched on = most connected places are linked through consumption and production of goods
and services…

Page 9

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GeographyGoing Global 1September/October 2014

Costs to UK Benefits to UK
· Reduced customer satisfaction · Strong IT skills in host countries
· Dereliction and decay of unused buildings · Improved customer service
· Job losses ­ 200,000 by 2005 · Reduced cost to company, meaning greater
· Deindustrialisation ­ similar…

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