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ASCHopinions and social pressure
JENNESS Jenness put beans in a jar and asked participants to judge
how many beans were in there. He then put participants into groups and
asked them to complete the task again.
Jenness found that the participants conformed to a group norm (a middle

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participants that did not conform said they had `confidence in their

those who did conform said that they `did not want to spoil the results'

ASCH found:
group size raises conformity
a truthful confederate reduced pressure to conform
a inaccurate confederate reduced pressure to conform

strong tendancy to…

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Milgram is jewish
Interested by the nazi's defence at the Nuremburg trials after the
Nazi's claimed that they were `simply following orders'
The theory that `germans are different' was suggested

MILGRAM wanted to test the `Germans are different' theory
He wanted to see if it conformity was…

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the `germans are different' theory was disproven
people were persuaded by yales prestigious setting, the $4.50
payment and the novel situation

Strengths: variables controlled
Weaknesses: subject to demand characteristics
Subject to experimenter bias
Lacks ecological validity

VOLUNTEER SAMPLE biased as only certain types of people may volunteer…

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SELYE in 1930's suggested a link between stress + illness with his work
on rats
HAWKINS worked in a TB sanatorium and observed poor people
suffered worse, he suggested this was due to emotional stress making
them more vulnerable
RAHE made the schedule of recent experience (SRE) and the…

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Strengths: lots of data collected
Easy to analyse
weaknesses : only major stress was counted
possibility of lies
not very reliable

Weaknesses: variables are not accounted for
Cause + effect not shown
Participants may not remember previous events from 6 months ago

VALIDITY: unusual events were…

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Bennett, Levy,Marteau Fear of animals
SELIGMAN proposed the concept of biological preparedness, this is a
inherited disposition to fear certain animals

3 observations were made:
Non random distribution of fears (snakes and spiders etc.)
Not matched by traumatic experiences
Fears peak in early life (childhood)

MINEKA found wild reared…

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rats were feared considerably more than any other, it was suggested they
were perceived as the most harmful
rabbits were the least feared
females were less likely to approach animals than men
men in group 1 rated themselves less fearful than women but just as
responsive to the characteristics in…

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Gardner + Gardner teaching a chimp sign language
CHOMSKY said humans have the language acquisition device which
allows us to acquire language, so theoretically animals should not be able
to learn human language

HAYES AND HAYES woked with a chimp called VICKI but could only
teach it 4 words…

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the gardners did not answer the question as they thought it was against
the spirit of their research.
HOWEVER, they did show that sign language is a appropriate language
for chimps as washoe was able to learn it.

Strenghths: the experimenters got to know washoe better


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