Why had international peace collapsed by 1939

Notes for an essay.Directly relevant to question (i.e. doesn't describe events like the Saar plebiscite, only says why it contributed to war) Info used from http://www.johndclare.net and textbook. 

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  • Created on: 06-06-12 14:14
Preview of Why had international peace collapsed by 1939

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Why had international peace collapsed
by 1939?
1. The Treaty of Versailles
The victorious nations later realised the unfairness of the Treaty, making them feel guilty and
giving rise to the policy of appeasement.
The harsh terms of the Treaty simply made Hitler's early aggression look justified so no one
went against him at the crucial time. E.g. Remilitarisation of the Rhineland.
Self determination surrounded Germany with new, small nations that Germany could easily
use to expand its territory.
The Treaty made the Germans angry and vengeful. They wanted revenge.
2. The failure of the League of Nations to keep peace
Weak from the start, the League's big failures in Manchuria and Abyssinia encouraged Hitler
as he realised the powerlessness of the organisation.
It failed to prevent Hitler from breaking the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
It failed to achieve disarmament which gave Hitler an excuse to rearm.
Britain and France abandoned collective security and turned to appeasement
3. The encouragement of aggression through the policy of
Appeasement encouraged Hitler to become very aggressive as he thought no one would
stop him, which caused war when he went too far.
Appeasement created mistrust in Britain and France, which led Stalin to make the Nazi-Soviet
Pact with Hitler.
4. Hitler's foreign policy
Hitler had intended war and expansion of territory as soon as he became chancellor because
of the unfairness of the Treaty and the way Germany lost.
5. Hitler's increasing aggression (The eight steps to war)
The Saar Plebiscite 1935
Showed the immense support of Nazi's to Hitler's opponents.
Massive boost to Hitler's prestige.
Conscription and Rearmament 1935
Broke the Treaty of Versailles
Remilitarisation of the Rhineland 7 March 1936
Broke the Treaty of Versailles
Crucial moment where Germany could have been stopped as Hitler's soldiers had
orders to pull out in case of opposition.
First bold military action and it was successful, which encouraged Hitler.
The Spanish Civil War
!937, Germany scared other countries with its weapons and bombs.
Anti-Comintern Pact 1936-37
Axis alliance between Japan, Italy and Germany to limit Communism, scared Stalin.
Anschluss with Austria 11 March 1938
Broke the Treaty of Versailles.

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Rewarded with Austrian soldiers, weapons and rich deposits of gold and iron.
The Sudetenland and the Munich Agreement 28 September 1938
Convinced Hitler that Chamberlain and Daladier wouldn't do anything to stop him.
Convinced Stalin that Britain and France were not to be trusted.
First time Hitler invaded land not mentioned in the Treaty of Versailles.…read more


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