how far did internationalism triumph in the 1920's?

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  • How far did internationalism triumph in the 1920's?
    • Internationalism or Nationalism?
      • Internationalism is where international cooperation between countries(work together).
        • Upper Silesia settlement,1920-29:A Dispute broke out between Germany and Poland over Upper Silesia. to solve the problem, the League oversaw a peaceful vote and divided the region between Germany and Poland. Both countries agreed.
        • Dawes Plan,1924,to advert an economic crisis in Germany, the USA lent it the money it needed to honour its reparations. These loans propped up the German economy and restored prosperity to the country in the mid-1920s.
        • Rapallo Treaty,1922, the USSR and Germany re-established diplomatic relations.
      • Nationalism where a country focuses on its own country.
        • Aaland Island dispute,1921, Finland and Sweden both claimed the Aaland Islands. Both sides were threatening to go to war, but in the end Sweden accepted the League's ruling that the island's should belong to Finland.
        • Vilna: Polish -Lithuanian dispute,1920-29,Poland took control of the Lithuanian appealed to the League and the League protested to Poland, but the poles did not pull out. France and Britain were not prepared to act because Poland was a potential French ally against Germany.
        • Disarmament:-all the peace treaties stated that the nations should disarm and it was the League's role to make sure they did. However, throughout the 1920's it largely failed in this aim. At the Washington Conference in 1921, the USA, Japan, Britain and France agreed to limit the size of their navies, but that was as far as disarmament ever got. This failure was particularly damaging to the League's reputation in Germany. Germany had disarmed- it had been forced to- but no one else did so to the same extent.
      • Woodrow Wilson (USA), set out his vision for the post-war world in his 14 points. His 14 points state about how he wants countries to work together with no secret treaties to help prevent war in the future, he also stated that he wanted countries to disarm so even if the countries thought about war they would have an issue.
        • Wilson's 14       points:    No secret treaties, Free access foe all to the seas in peacetime or wartime, Free trade between countries, All countries to work towards disarmament, Colonies to have a say in their own future, German troops to leave Russia, Independence for Belgium, France to regain Alsace-Lorraine, Frontier between Austria and Italy to be adjusted , Self-determination for the people of eastern Europe (they should be ruled by them selves and not ruled by empires) , Serbia to have access to the sea , Self-determination for people in the Turkish Empire.
      • George Clemenceau (France), clashed with both Lloyd George and Wilson about how to treat Germany, he wanted a really harsh punishment.
      • David Lloyd George (Britain), was particularly unhappy with point 2 of the 14 points which allowed all nations access the seas, he was worried that any country might come in and attack his country without its notice and easily could fail the battle.
    • How the League of Nations was organised.
      • The League was run by a permanent Secretariat (staff of office workers).
        • THE COUNCIL; met 5 times a year or when there was an emergency. IT had some temporary members elected by the ASSEMBLY and four permanent members - Britain, France, Italy and Japan. The real power lay with these four. Each permanent member could stop any action by the League. In any crisis the COUNCIL took all the important decisions.
        • THE ASSEMBLY was the League's parliament. It met once a year. It voted on issues such as the budget (spending) of the League, or letting in new members. Decisions had  to be unanimous (every member had to agree).
        • The COURT OF INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE helped settle disputes between countries. The court would listen to both sides and then  make a decision, just like an ordinary court of law.
        • The League had a number of COMMISSIONS, or committees, to tackle international problem such as helping refugees or improving health.
          • The Work Of The League's Commissions
            • The INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION successfully campaigned for worker's rights - especially for women and children - in all  countries.
            • The League brought in the first DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD, which is still in force today.
            • The HEALTH COMMITTEE funded research into deadly diseases, developing vaccines against leprosy and malaria.The League also fought successful campaigns against DRUG TRAFFICKING and slavery. E.G. it was responsible for freeing 200000 slaves in British-owned Sierra Leone.
            • Another area of achievement was in finance. E.G. in 1922-23 the ECONOMIES of Austria and Hungary collapsed. In response, the League's FINANCIAL COMMITTEE came up with an economic plan to raise loans and help these two economies recover.
            • The REFUGEE COMMITTEE helped an estimated 400000 people who had been displaced by the war or made prisoners of war return to their homes.
      • The League began with 42 member nations. By 1939, there were over 50 members. But some powerful nations left the League and others, most notably the USA, never joined.
        • The most strongest influences are:  France (1919-1945), Britain   (1919-1945), Italy       (1919-1945), Japan    (1919-1933), Germany  (1926-1933), USSR    (1934-1939)
    • International agreements in the 1920's.
      • RAPALLO TREATY, 1922, The USSR and Germany re-established diplomatic relations.
      • DAWES PLAN,1924, To avert an economic crisis in Germany, the USA lent it the money it needed to honour its reparations. These loans propped up the German economy and restored prosperity to the country in the mid-1920's.
      • KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT, 1928, The official name for this was the 'General Treaty of Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy' (also known as the 'Pact of Paris'). It was an agreement between 65 nations not to use force to settle disputes.
      • YOUNG PLAN,1929, Reduced the total amount of German reparations.




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