Why Had International Peace Collapsed by 1939?

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  • Why Had International Peace Collapsed by 1939?
    • How Far Was Hitler's Foreign Policy to Blame for the Outbreak of War in 1939?
      • Abolition of TTOV
      • Rearmament
      • All German Speaking People's to be United in a German Reich
      • Expand German Territory
      • Defeat Communism
      • Hitler's Preparations for German Expansion
        • 1933 - withdraws Germany from the League
        • 1934 - agreed a 10 year friendship with Poland
        • March 1935 - reintroduced conscription in Germany
          • Violation of TTOV
        • June 1935 - naval agreement with Britain
          • Allowed Germany to build up to 35% of Britain's naval strength and 45% of submarine strength
            • Implied Germany had a right to rearm
              • Violation of TTOV
        • Hitler began rearming Germany in 1933
          • Thousands of unemployed drafted into armed forces
          • 1935 - massive military rally
    • Was the Policy of Appeasement Justified?
      • For
        • Hitler was standing up to Communism
        • Attitude of British Empire
        • Dread of WWI repeat
        • Britain was not ready for war
        • Economic problems
        • Hitler was right - TTOV was unfair
        • The USA would not have supported
      • Against
        • It allowed Germany to grow too strong
        • It sacred the USSR
        • Put too much trust in Hitler's promises
        • Encouraged Hitler to be aggressive
    • How Important Was the Nazi-Soviet Pact?
      • Signed August 1939
        • USSR would get Latvia, Estonia, Finland and East Poland
          • Germany never really intended for this to happen
        • 1st September 1939 - Germany invades Poland, knowing that Russia would not attack
          • 3rd September - Britain declares war
    • Why Did Britain and France Declare War on Germany in September 1939?
      • Czechoslovakia
        • March 1939 - Germany takes the rest of Czechoslovakia
          • Chaos after loss of Sudetenland - Slovakia demanded independence
            • German troops sent in to 'restore order'
              • May 1939 - Germany signs 'Pact of Steel' with Italy
                • Britain agrees to help Poland if invaded
                  • 3rd September - Britain declares war
      • The Saar Plebiscite
        • January 1925 - 90% vote to join Germany after 15 years under the control of the League from 1920, as part of TTOV
      • The Spanish Civil War
        • Gave Hitler an opportunity to fight Communism and test out his new military capability
          • Hitler and Mussolini saw they had much in common
            • 1936-37 - Anti-Comintern Pact
              • 1934 - Nazi revolt fails. Stopped by Mussolini sending troops to Austrian border
              • Axis Alliance: Germany, Italy & Japan
              • Schuschnigg calls plebiscite
                • Hitler cannot be sure so sends in troops
                  • 99.75% vote for Anschluss
      • Austria
        • 1934 - Nazi revolt fails. Stopped by Mussolini sending troops to Austrian border
      • The Sudetenland
        • 3 million Germans lived in the region of Czechoslovakia
          • Britain and France would support Benes, who was ready to fight
            • Brink of war
              • Mussolini puts forward plan (formulated by German Foreign Office)
                • Munich Agreement
                  • Germany gets the Sudetenland
        • Czechoslovakia
          • March 1939 - Germany takes the rest of Czechoslovakia
            • Chaos after loss of Sudetenland - Slovakia demanded independence
              • German troops sent in to 'restore order'
                • May 1939 - Germany signs 'Pact of Steel' with Italy
                  • Britain agrees to help Poland if invaded

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