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Specification requirements
- (s) recognise and write formulae for examples of
members of the following homologous series:
halogenoalkanes and those met in unit F331
- (t) use systematic nomenclature to name and
interpret the names of halogenoalkanes and
compounds for which naming was required in unit F331…read more

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Naming halogenoalkanes
· Primary, secondary and tertiary halogenoalkanes
In a primary (1°) halogenoalkane, In a secondary (2°) halogenoalkane, the In a tertiary (3°) halogenoalkane, the carbon
the carbon which carries the carbon with the halogen attached is atom holding the halogen is attached
halogen atom is only attached to joined directly to two other alkyl groups, directly to three alkyl groups, which may be
one other alkyl group. which may be the same or different. any combination of same or different.
e.g. e.g.
bromobutane H
Br
2-bromopropane
1. Name functional group
2-bromo-2-
methylpropane…read more

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Specification requirements
-(w) describe and explain the characteristic properties of
halogenoalkanes, comparing fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-
and iodo- compounds; the following aspects are to be
considered:
· (i) boiling points, (depend on intermolecular bonds),
· (ii) nucleophilic substitution with water and hydroxide
ions to form alcohols, and with ammonia to form amines…read more

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Physical properties of halogenoalkanes
· The chart shows the boiling points of some simple halogenoalkanes.
three of these
have boiling
The patterns in
points below
boiling point
room
reflect the patterns
temperature
in intermolecular
(taken as
attractions.
being about
20°C). These
will be gases Remember:
at room ·the only methyl halide
temperature. which is a liquid is
iodomethane;
·chloroethane is a gas…read more

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Van de Waals dispersion forces
· These attractions get stronger as the molecules increase in size
and number of electrons. That increases the sizes of the
temporary dipoles.
· Boiling points increase as the number of carbon atoms in the
chains increases and dispersion forces get stronger. It takes
more energy to overcome them, causing a rise in boiling point.
· The increase in boiling point as you go from a chloride to a
bromide to an iodide is also because of the increase in number
of electrons leading to larger dispersion forces. For example,
there are more electrons in iodomethane than there are in
chloromethane which is why there's a higher boiling point.…read more

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