The Oceans- OCR B salters

A revision booklet for the Oceans section on the OCR B salters chemistry course. Well detailed. Feel free to contact via getrevising mail if there are any problems or anything is not clear! 

Also check out for more useful resources. 

HideShow resource information
Word Document 178.69 Kb

Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1

Revision Booklet

James Smith


Page 2

Preview of page 2
The chemical ideas in this module are:

1) Dissolving
2) Acid-base equilibria and pH
3) Entropy
4) Disposing of carbon dioxide

a) Explain the hydrogen bonding in water and explain the unusual physical properties of water
that arise from this
(i) Anomalous boiling point among the hydrides of group 6…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
bonds, more energy is used for increasing the kinetic energy; hence the liquid is heated up with less

(iii) The enthalpy change of vaporization is a measure of the energy we have to put into a liquid to
overcome the intermolecular bonds and turn one mole of molecules from…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
b) Explain the factors (including the intermolecular bonds and ion-dipole forces) determining
the relative solubility of a solute in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents and explain the
hydration of ions.

Hydration of ions: This is when an ion in solution is surrounded by water molecules. Water is a polar
molecule, as…

Page 5

Preview of page 5


Page 6

Preview of page 6

Page 7

Preview of page 7
d) Explain entropy changes in a qualitative manner, interpreting entropy as a measure of the
number of ways that molecules and their associated energy quanta can be arranged.

Entropy changes can explained and interpreted by looking at a number of different factors:

1) NUMBER OF MOLECULES- the more molecules you…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
(i) Stot = Ssys + Ssurr

Ssurr = - H/T

(ii) To be able to perform calculations using these expressions
(iii) Explain the tendency for a reaction to occur in terms of the sign of Stot

These calculations are fairly straight forward and so I shall skip straight to (iii)…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
The 2nd Ionization enthalpy will be greater the 1st, and the 3rd greater than the 2nd etc. This is
because once one electron is removed, the others become much more attracted to the nucleus,
hence this stronger attraction means more energy is required to release the next electron etc.


Page 10

Preview of page 10
The Acid has a conjugate base. Similarly a Basic reactant has a conjugate acid on the products side of
the reaction:

NOTE: water can act as a BASE or an ACID. It is AMPHOTERIC.

2nd NOTE: A strong acid has a WEAK conjugate base, and a strong base has a…





you are the best 

i am organise well now :)

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »