The Oceans- OCR B salters

A revision booklet for the Oceans section on the OCR B salters chemistry course. Well detailed. Feel free to contact via getrevising mail if there are any problems or anything is not clear! 

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THE OCEANS
Revision Booklet


James Smith



5/10/2011

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The chemical ideas in this module are:

1) Dissolving
2) Acid-base equilibria and pH
3) Entropy
4) Disposing of carbon dioxide

a) Explain the hydrogen bonding in water and explain the unusual physical properties of water
that arise from this
(i) Anomalous boiling point among the hydrides of group 6…

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bonds, more energy is used for increasing the kinetic energy; hence the liquid is heated up with less
energy.

(iii) The enthalpy change of vaporization is a measure of the energy we have to put into a liquid to
overcome the intermolecular bonds and turn one mole of molecules from…

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b) Explain the factors (including the intermolecular bonds and ion-dipole forces) determining
the relative solubility of a solute in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents and explain the
hydration of ions.

Hydration of ions: This is when an ion in solution is surrounded by water molecules. Water is a polar
molecule, as…

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(ii)




Diagrams:

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d) Explain entropy changes in a qualitative manner, interpreting entropy as a measure of the
number of ways that molecules and their associated energy quanta can be arranged.

Entropy changes can explained and interpreted by looking at a number of different factors:

1) NUMBER OF MOLECULES- the more molecules you…

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(i) Stot = Ssys + Ssurr

Ssurr = - H/T

(ii) To be able to perform calculations using these expressions
(iii) Explain the tendency for a reaction to occur in terms of the sign of Stot

These calculations are fairly straight forward and so I shall skip straight to (iii)…

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The 2nd Ionization enthalpy will be greater the 1st, and the 3rd greater than the 2nd etc. This is
because once one electron is removed, the others become much more attracted to the nucleus,
hence this stronger attraction means more energy is required to release the next electron etc.

h)…

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The Acid has a conjugate base. Similarly a Basic reactant has a conjugate acid on the products side of
the reaction:




NOTE: water can act as a BASE or an ACID. It is AMPHOTERIC.

2nd NOTE: A strong acid has a WEAK conjugate base, and a strong base has a…

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