The Oceans- OCR B salters

A revision booklet for the Oceans section on the OCR B salters chemistry course. Well detailed. Feel free to contact via getrevising mail if there are any problems or anything is not clear! 

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THE OCEANS
Revision Booklet
James Smith
5/10/2011

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The chemical ideas in this module are:
1) Dissolving
2) Acid-base equilibria and pH
3) Entropy
4) Disposing of carbon dioxide
a) Explain the hydrogen bonding in water and explain the unusual physical properties of water
that arise from this
(i) Anomalous boiling point among the hydrides of group 6
(ii) Specific heat capacity
(iii) Enthalpy change of vaporization/evaporation
(iv) Density change on melting
(i) The group 6 hydrides have a strange boiling points pattern (group 6 hydrides are H2O, H2S, H2Se and
H2Te).…read more

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The enthalpy change of vaporization is a measure of the energy we have to put into a liquid to
overcome the intermolecular bonds and turn one mole of molecules from liquid to vapor. Water's
enthalpy change of vaporization is generally much higher than other liquids. This is because it can form
many hydrogen bonds, which are the strongest form of intermolecular bonds, and hence require the
most energy to overcome.
(iv)The density of water DECREASES as it freezes and turns to ice.…read more

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Explain the factors (including the intermolecular bonds and ion-dipole forces) determining
the relative solubility of a solute in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents and explain the
hydration of ions.
Hydration of ions: This is when an ion in solution is surrounded by water molecules. Water is a polar
molecule, as it has a partial positive charge on both hydrogen atoms and a partial negative charge on the
oxygen atom.…read more

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Diagrams:…read more

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Explain entropy changes in a qualitative manner, interpreting entropy as a measure of the
number of ways that molecules and their associated energy quanta can be arranged.
Entropy changes can explained and interpreted by looking at a number of different factors:
1) NUMBER OF MOLECULES- the more molecules you have, the larger the entropy, as there are
more ways in which the system can be organized (there is more disorder).
e.g.…read more

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Stot = Ssys + Ssurr
Ssurr = - H/T
(ii) To be able to perform calculations using these expressions
(iii) Explain the tendency for a reaction to occur in terms of the sign of Stot
These calculations are fairly straight forward and so I shall skip straight to (iii)
iii) This comes from the 2nd law of thermodynamics: a reaction will be SPONTANEOUS is the entropy of
the universe (or total entropy changes) increases.…read more

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The 2nd Ionization enthalpy will be greater the 1st, and the 3rd greater than the 2nd etc. This is
because once one electron is removed, the others become much more attracted to the nucleus,
hence this stronger attraction means more energy is required to release the next electron etc.
h) Recall and explain the relationship between the position of an element and the charge of its
Ion.
The group 1 elements tend to form ions with a 1+ charge.…read more

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The Acid has a conjugate base. Similarly a Basic reactant has a conjugate acid on the products side of
the reaction:
NOTE: water can act as a BASE or an ACID. It is AMPHOTERIC.
2nd NOTE: A strong acid has a WEAK conjugate base, and a strong base has a WEAK conjugate
acid. I.e.…read more

Comments

Hannah

AMMMMAAZZZIIINNNGGGG

you are the best 

i am organise well now :)

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